Koschere Melange

The blog of the Austrian Jewish Museum - ISSN 2410-6380

Purim 5779 / 2019

Übermorgen, am 14. Adar (heuer der 21. März) ist Purim. Wir wünschen allen Leserinnen und Lesern unserer Koscheren Melange ein fröhliches Purim! חג פורים שמח לכולם! Am Tag vor Purim,…

Tomorrow, on 14 Adar (March 21 this year) is Purim.

We wish all our readers a happy melange kosher Purim!

Happy Purim to everyone!

The day before Purim, so tomorrow, on 13 Adar, is Taanit ester, a so-called "small fast day" for Ester, whose source is found in the Book of Esther 4.15 to 16:

Ester did answer Mordecai: Go and gather all the Jews who are in Susa, and fast for me that you do not eat and drink for three days, night or day. Even I and my maids will fast as you ...

What is it about Taanit esters, explains Rebbetzin Noemi Berger, Born Schlesinger, wife of the former chief rabbi of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg, very nice in the article "A smaller 'fasting for Esther„.

Even for Purim 5775/2015 we have in a blog Article pointed out the serious backdrop of the happy Purim and the legendary extension of the biblical story with an illustration from the Leipzig Machsor 51v occupied. On 52r there were, the prequel to this illustration, because the illustrator had not been content to just the "result", ie the destruction of the Jewish persecutor Haman represent, but describes - almost in detail - the whole story as it in Jewish tradition was understood:

Leipziger Machsor 52r, 3 Illustrationen

Leipzig Machsor 52r, 3 illustrations

The three illustrations in detail:

Leipziger Machsor 52r, Illustration links

Leipziger Machsor 52r, Illustration links

On the left picture we see ester in royal garb and with a crown in front of the seated on a throne King Achashverosh, who hands her his golden scepter whose peak touches with the right hand, as we read in Ester 5.8:

And the third day are esters dressed royal and entered the inner court of the king's palace opposite the palace of the king. And the king sat on his royal throne in the royal hall opposite the gate of the palace. And when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she found favor in his eyes. And the king held out the golden scepter in his hand esters. As Ester drew near, and touched the top of the scepter. Then the king said to her: What is it, esters, Queen? And what do you desire? The half of the kingdom shall be given you. Esther said, If it please the king, let the king with Haman come to the banquet that I have prepared for today. The king said, Hasten Haman, bringing so done what Ester has said! and when the king and Haman came to the banquet that Ester had prepared the king said to Ester, as they drank wine, What is thy petition, Esther? It shall be given you. And what do you desire? Would it be the half of the kingdom it shall be performed. Since esters replied, My petition and my request is: Have I found favor in the king and if it please the king to grant my request and do according to my desire, let the king with Haman come to the banquet that I will prepare for them want. Tomorrow I will do what the king has said.

Leipziger Machsor 52r, Illustration Mitte

Leipzig Machsor 52r, Illustration center

In the middle is just to see how Haman leads the royal horse to Mordecai. The biblical story found in the book ester 6.7 to 13:

And Haman said to the king, For the man whom the king wishes to honor, let them bring royal apparel, which tends to wear the king, and Ross, it rides the king and whose head a crown royal, and one should dress and Ross give one of the king that he may array the man whom the king wishes to honor and lead him on the horse through the city square and can proclaim before him, Thus shall be done to the man whom the king wishes to honor. The king said to Haman, Make haste, and take dress and Ross, as you have said, and do even so to Mordecai the Jew sitting in the king's gate, and let nothing fail of all that you said. Then took Haman dress and Ross and dressed Mordecai and led him through the square of the city, and proclaimed before him, Thus shall happen to the man to whom the king wishes to honor. And Mordecai came again to the king's gate. But Haman hurried home, mourning and having his head covered, and his wife Zeresh and all his friends told him everything that had happened to him. Since said to him, his friends and his wife Zeresh: Is Mordecai, before whom you have begun to fall, seed of the Jews, thou shalt not prevail against him, but you will completely come to the case before him.

In Jewish tradition, this royal commission for a longer conversation between Haman and the king in which Haman tried in vain to dissuade the king from letting the Jew Mordechai get this honor is.

Leipziger Machsor 52r, Illustration rechts

Leipzig Machsor 52r, Illustration right

The illustration on the far right is derived entirely from the Jewish legend: we see Mordechai with Jewish hat, as he teaches three students (bareheaded). All hold an open book in her hands.

As the story goes, we already know, see our Blog articles on Purim 5775/2015.

Leipziger Machsor 51v

Leipzig Machsor 51v

For when the pageant with Mordechai am led by Haman horse at the house of Haman passed, the daughter of Haman the attic of watched and wanted to humiliate the Mordechai more. She thought of course that Mordechai lead the horse and her father Haman was the honored Reitende!
So she poured the contents of their chamber pot the horse leader on the head. Only when Haman turned around, she realized that she had not compromised Mordechai, but her father and jumped out the skylight down to death.

Recommend Purim particularly we would like the available online Megillah, the Mischna Megillah, the Megillah for children and Articles "Purim - Festival of victory over the adversaries"And"Sleeping and Purim"To find anything to"Chajms view"The blog of Hayim Guski.

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Janowitz Heinrich - July 26, 1866

2017 gründete Günther Havranek den Verein „Rettet den jüdischen Friedhof Währing„. Sprecherin des Vereins ist Dr.in Jennifer Kickert. In der Grundsatzerklärung heißt es unter anderem: Der Verein „Rettet den jüdischen…

2017 Günther Havranek founded the association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing". Spokesperson of the association is Dr.in Jennifer Kickert. In the Declaration of Principles states, inter alia:

The association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing" has set itself the goal of supporting the Jewish Community of Vienna with the necessary remedial measures. For that donations are collected, set up a small museum, organized volunteer work to reduce plant growth and organizes regular tours to raise public awareness of this so important place in Vienna.

The Austrian Jewish Museum in Eisenstadt is happy to support the club, especially when in addition to the planned restructuring measures and a really serious and long overdue, thorough work-up of this famous cemetery, that of a unique document of the Viennese culture, art, economy and society in the period Biedermeier is going.

In concrete terms means that we successively the Hebrew grave inscriptions (there are thousands of them), transcribe and translate also possible, but in any case the most important data is read out.

Already in 2012 the way Traude Triebel has all the death books of the Jewish Community relating to the Jewish cemetery Währing (Vienna) worked up, see our blog article "New database with approximately 29,000 entries 1784-1879„.

A happy coincidence was yesterday that I just looking at the picture of that grave stone, as the title picture for the Facebook site the association is used to read "by the inhabitants of Eisenstadt" and me then the inscription have looked closer. A first beautiful example about the close relationship between Eisenstadt and Vienna:

Heinrich (Zvi Hirsch) Janowitz, 14 Av 626 (= Thursday, July 26, 1866)

Grabstein Heinrich (Zvi Hirsch) Janowitz, gest. 14. Menachem Av 626 = Donnerstag, 26. Juli 1866, Foto: Jennifer Kickert

Grave stone Heinrich (Zvi Hirsch) Janowitz, died 14 Menachem Av 626 = Thursday, July 26, 1866, Photo ©:. Jennifer Kickert

The grave inscription

Inscription HeinrichJanowitz: Line righteous transcription and translation
[1] H (ier is) b (egraben) Here lies
[2] d (he expensive) M (ann), the Outstanding, very lofty, H'h very exalted exalted
[3] d(er) e(hrbare) H(err) Zvi Hirsch Harar Tzvi Hersh
[4] S (ohn the) wonderful Rabbinical, Morenu James Janowitz B'hrbni wonderful Mo'h Ya'akov Ianaooittz
[5] d of the population (s sacred Jewish) G (emeinde) Eisenstadt. Msushbi QC eyzenshtadt
[6] S (a soul) g (ing away) on 14 Menachem Av I'n pretty Av
[7] of the year Year
[8] than him "Torn Will" (= 5626) came. The cuts came about
[9] This is) this
[10] a memorial stone at the burial of an expensive man, tender and sweet. Man expensive gravestone soft
[11] The days of his years were few and bad. Years of my life were few and evil
[12] Initially wa (r) his lot shiny and full of light, Firstly fate tenth acknowledge and Nahor
[13] but at the end of the youth it was bitter and bloody. But the aftermath Menon Mr. Naor
[14] From the rest of his life he was cut off yet, in its prime Unplug cords vitality still Babu
[15] In his death all his worries and pains were taken. Death took all sorrow and pain
[16] S (a soul) m (ÖGE be involved) i (m Confederation) d (it lives). Tntzbh

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Baptism and wedding at the 17th century in Pottendorf

Während die Sieben-Gemeinden, also die berühmten sieben heiligen jüdischen Gemeinden auf früherem esterházyschem Gebiet, weitgehend bekannt sind, führt die jüdische Gemeinde Neufeld an der Leitha mehr oder weniger ein Schattendasein….

During the seven communities, thus the famous seven sacred Jewish communities in former esterházyschem territory, are widely known, the Jewish community Neufeld an der Leitha leads more or less a shadowy existence.
The community Neufeld founded in 1648-1653 by Franz von Nádasdy is one of the few still existing villages whose origins go back to a Jewish settlement. Neufeld is situated on the Lower Austrian limit Ebenfurth is only separated by a bridge.
This is not about the exciting and varied history of the Jews in NeufeldBut to the neighboring Pottendorf. Not only do we read in Urbar Pottendorf 1668 of 17 named Jewish owners of a total of 11 houses in Neufeld and a chamber visitation of customs offices described the rain border traffic in the same year:

Between Raab, Bruck an der Leitha, Komarno and Eisenstadt, Kittsee, Rajka, Kobersdorf, Pottendorf and Neufeld here a Jewish microcosm emerges, within which not only goods were moved from one place to another, but also people traveling across borders , made contacts and fought out conflicts.

Reinhard Buchberger, from transit visas and oneself settling down. Jews in early modern Hungary

In Pottendorf Jakob Berchtold put Baron to and from Hungarian contactor already in 1635 a new Jewry Affected by Land Registry, in the three constituent Jews (Jews lease) and 22 Herberg Jews were listed by name.

At a major event occurred in Pottendorf on 17 January 1641, the day of St. Anthony the Hermit, as a Jewish woman and her daughter were baptized.

then a Jewish baptism caused a sensation and was regarded as a glorious triumph of the Christian faith. also for participating in such a soul-saving was considered very meritorious. No wonder if the sponsors (Godln) belonged to the highest Pottendorfer society. The sponsors of the Jewish woman was Regina Katharina Berchtoldin Ungar contactor and the woman manager Katharina Neuperin. On behalf of Mrs. Regina Berchtoldin the owner of the red court 'and imperial captain Mrs Regina smoke from smoke Berg came. Godl the little daughter was Mrs. Christine Baumgartnerin marriage landlady of Ulrich Baumgartner, Marktrichter in Pottendorf. Accordingly, the name of the Jewess godmothers were named Regina Catherine and the child the name Christine.

Rudolf Hertzka, chronicle the large village Pottendorf, Pottendorf 1989 322

Taufe Pottendorf 17. Jänner 1641

Baptism Pottendorf 17 January 1641

The 17 dito is a Jew sambt her child was taufft Gevater Leut be gewest Fraw Catharina Neüpaurin vnd woman nurse Regina Rauchin anstat your vnd wife Regina Catharina Perchtoldin vnd vnd is for your genent Regina Catharina Kindß Gefaterin Criustina dess Paumgartnerin Judge Cristina vnd genent.

Not surprising at this time that rarely details of the parents are made from Jews baptisms.

Already, 10 days later, on January 27, 1641, there was the next rare spectacle for the Pottendorfer: The newly baptized Jew married unmarried Christian journeyman Sebastian Rauscher:

Trauung Sebastian Rauscher und Regina Catharina, getraufter Jüdin, Pottendorf, 27. Jänner 1641

Wedding Sebastian Rauscher and Regina Catharina, getraufter Jewish, Pottendorf, January 27, 1641

27 Is copuliert been an unmarried gesel getauffter with Regina Catharina Jewish Sebastian Rauscher.

Many thanks to Felix Gundacker for reading glasses and Helmut Schmeilzl for the tip.

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Shoah Memorial in Eisenstadt - invitation to discourse

Background photo from the Yad Vashem Hall of Stars in the children's memorial. (Taken from Wikimedia Commons) Context In Eisenstadt there is no Holocaust memorial. Time and again, from different sides ...

Background photo from the Yad Vashem Hall of Stars in the children's memorial. (Taken from Wikimedia Commons)

initial situation

In Eisenstadt there is no Holocaust memorial.

Again and again (from various political parties, the churches will be (see below the Letter from the pastor), As well as the Research Society Burgenland, etc.) Holocaust Memorial (!) Required for Eisenstadt.

Concrete proposals for such a monument or a more detailed justification for such a memorial, but "it just lacked in Eisenstadt", at least to me are not known.

That the requirements for a Holocaust monument in the state capital Eisenstadt were reinforced made in recent times, especially in connection with the common / bedenkjahr 2018, is no coincidence. more thinking / memorials in Burgenland were built especially in recent years.

A Jewish museum can and this discussion does not want his city to escape, not least because a Jewish museum always is institutionalized actor remembering (s. To particularly our blog article "Peculiarities of memory„).

The Holocaust monuments in Burgenland - A brief overview of the past year

Deutschkreutz 2012 was "a pioneer" with a monument in the main street, followed in October 2014, Dedication of a memorial plaque at the Jewish cemetery in German Kreutz in memory of the Hungarian Jewish forced laborers. Initiator in both cases Mizrachi Austria (Vienna) and especially Michael Feyer.

Michael Feyer it was also the one in 2017 with his club "We remember. Encounter with the Jewish Mattersburg"The Holocaust Memorial in Mattersburg presented. A monument that dominates the very prominent Fountain Square and the ancient monument replaced at the site of the former synagogue, so to speak. For a critique of this monument see my comment below.

Also in 2017 was the Memorial in Kobersdorf presents that had been initiated by the former mayor of the municipality, Erwin Steiner House. are on the monument itself, unlike the other monuments, including the names of victims, addresses, etc. Between murdered and displaced persons but did not differ, the list is also incomplete.

Very sensitive and considered one went in Frauenkirchen before where built on the site of the former synagogue in the "Garden of Remembrance" and officially presented in 2016 was. The initiative was carried out by Dr. Herbert Brettl and the association "Initiative Remember Frauenkirchen". was accompanied / is the initiative of lectures and activities.

Together, all these mentioned thinking and memorials first is the fact that they are places in which previously held no explicit and specific culture of remembrance, at least not with a clear reference to places or places in town that have the function of a place of remembrance. While there are in Kobersdorf, German Kreutz, Mattersburg and Frauenkirchen Jewish cemeteries, but they were never really active and permanently attached to the places in the memory work.

This is also the crucial difference to Eisenstadt:

  • In Eisenstadt there since 1972 our Austrian Jewish Museum, The oldest Jewish museum in Europe since 1945. It was in the heart of the former Jewish quarter, at the Palais des court factor and Hungarian national Rabbi Samson Wertheimer, expressly commonly referred to as memory and memorial to the seven communities and to the former Jewish community of Eisenstadt in particular founded!

  • The museum is next to the synagogue, The only "living synagogue" of today's Burgenland, at the end of the permanent exhibition memorial roomWhich is dedicated to the memory of the Jews of the seven municipalities.

  • The Jewish Museum is Location in the Jewish quarter, Located on the edge of this district is the two Jewish cemeteriesWhich are closely involved in museum work has always been and the only Jewish cemeteries in Austria, which are completely refurbished and well documented! Each cemetery has always primarily also commemorative character!

  • Both almost all tourists and particularly the approximately 200 school groups from all over Austria, which annually visit the Jewish Museum, the Synagogue, the Jewish Quarter and the two Jewish cemeteries, do so as "active Gedenkakt"To the history of Jews in the city and the region.

  • Since at least 1992, the museum pays them particular attention to the meticulous and painstaking analysis of the history of Jews in the seven communities, especially the Jews in Eisenstadt.

  • All activities of this investigation were accompanied by the Eisenstadt and promoted (Print publication on the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt in 1995, Outdoor-Projekt "Ver (BE) time"2012 in the city of Eisenstadt, complete documentation of the older Jewish cemetery 2015 and complete documentation of the younger Jewish cemetery 2017-18 and all in connection with this documentation activities and events!).

We prefer as a Jewish Museum alternative (!) Forms a monument for obvious practical reasons. Or in other words: Before thinking about a Holocaust memorial, we need to know the names and stories of people and their children and grandchildren are themselves no longer in Eisenstadt. This first step we consider to be a sine qua non.

In particular, the processing of the younger Jewish cemetery has been in the so-called overall / bedenkjahr 2018 that - despite intensive work - still too many questions remain open: We do not know what happened to the children and grandchildren of about 500 late in Eisenstadt or in the death books recorded Jews has happened, we do not know many fates of the resident in January 1938 in Eisenstadt 446 Jews.
See especially our blog post: Commemorative year 2018ff.

Specifically, this means:

Before the history of Jews and Jewish history is not so worked up that the most important questions about the fate of the Jews of this city can be answered, makes a "conventional" monument little sense, If only because it would require a permanent revision of this monument (at least if concrete numbers and names are noted on the monument, which we did - in whatever form - useful hold).

Basically, the question must be allowed whether the above-cited form of thinking and memorials are long outdated (except Frauenkirchen!) And has had its day. To quote Michael Blumenthal, founding director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, which makes already in 2000 (!) Shows that

today it is no longer enough to do "something", but that it is now something happens to the "AS" is! Otherwise there is all the work for Alibi action to be. The traditional forms of memory have largely become obsolete, they now lead to confusion and contradiction. A reduction of commemoration and remembrance to the "WHAT" will have a commemorative activism result that is still applauded often reflexively, but will definitely have the effect that the memory for many is incomprehensible and splits! It is no longer harmonious, the descendants of the perpetrators do not understand, and the descendants of the victims as well not. must remember the past is not merely mummify, but has them alive and currently receive ...

W. Michael Blumenthal, the dispute over the memory. About the difficult path towards an ethic of Remembrance: The Holocaust and the public, in: Art Projects | Synagogue Stommeln | Kuntprojekte, Ostfildern-Ruit, 2000, 21ff

So how do we avoid that the domestic population has / seen enough memorial after two weeks at the local way of thinking, the tourists can do little with the monument and descendants of victims in Monument see only a superficial handling of personally relevant history of their ancestors ? but most of these "conventional" thinking and memorials interchangeable, Can be set up, where once Jews lived, a maximum of printed local name needs to be changed in any place. And of course it also leads to confusion when a monument is not clear escape the suspicion of an alibi action: developed only to do "something" to change at worst gedenkaktionistische shape and / or political capital.

is comparable to Eisenstadt Hohenems in Vorarlberg, where there is also a Jewish Museum is that in the former Jewish quarter is where there is also a Jewish cemetery are and where a lot of "small" details the history of the Hohenems Jews remember (buildings and street names, stumbling blocks and especially the permanent and living memory at the museum). And where there is also not a "conventional" thinking or memorial are, one is such a well is currently not considered or required.

So there is currently no reason for snap shots, a thinking / Memorial, as required by various sides to implement.

Quite the contrary, it has to go mainly to a permanent living memory work, far from political change and conventional, long disused forms of memory, regardless of official Dos and Bedenkjahren, free from suspicion of tokenism.

A kind Conclusio as well as ideas and approaches for the future

  • It applies primarily to clarify the many open questions. This is a working process, take the few years that will but make the Jewish Museum with passion and highest meticulousness. This should a permanent and vital Remember be guaranteed. The entire work process is always the support and involvement of Eisenstadt need (from Matrikenamt to financial subsidies, etc.).

  • One of the next steps is sure to have long planned with the city Eisenstadt panel (with plan and explanations) to install the younger Jewish cemetery (analogous to the board at the older Jewish cemetery). the outstanding issues to be addressed on the board.

  • Accompanying this work of the museum, the "results" in terms of "should also be consideredStones of remembrance"To make the city visible. This too would be a sign of a permanent, continuous and living memorial and memory work.

  • But since of course the displaced should be considered would be to consider whether to individual houses and squares, or possibly with a central memorial plaque, plaques with the names, occupations, etc. of there earlier resident Jews could be applied in the future. It must be able to be given to the question of why there are no Jews in Eisenstadt today and what happened to them in any case clear, accurate and understandable answers.

  • There are already exemplary projects that deserve the highest respect: students of the high school short meadow in Eisenstadt developed in the overall / bedenkjahr 2018 'The traveling memorial - a project against oblivion„. Living, personal and concrete examination of the history of the Jewish students, the Holocaust. The ORF report begins with the sentence "In Eisenstadt there is still no memorial to victims of the Shoah." Gives me, especially in the specific context of the question. Had teachers, students still developed this beautiful project, if there were such a monument in Eisenstadt? "Must" to teachers, pupils in Frauenkirchen, Kobersdorf, German Kreutz and Mattersburg not as intense with the history of Jewish students deal, because there is already a monument in the village?

  • Of course, "closes", our museum is not a Holocaust Memorial a priori. So that an idea for a really deliberate, sensitive-made, artistic quality and not arbitrary "replaceable" monument could put a thought process for a design in motion Will be for us always to imagine (assuming it agree the above parameters. To say that there the "wording" begins "Shoah memorial" and not "Holocaust memorial" that this monument of expelled and murdered Jews of Eisenstadt intends, but just that we do not have a monument to Jews, Sinti, Roma serious numbers and names ...) ,
    but the living and permanent memorial and commemorative work can already replace a monument.

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