John Rylands Haggadah, Spain, 14th century, Schächtszene


This Friday, March 30 (= 14 Nisan), Erev Pesach.

We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5778!

Happy and Kosher Passover!

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!


As is well known to the Pesach Kaschrutregeln must be followed especially closely, this time interested in the Jewish and Christian (!) Butcher who supplied kosher meat to the Jewish community. Although not intended, almost like a kind of genre picture of a trade from 1716 to 1828 arose.

Obviously, there have been incidents in the first decades of the newly established Jewish community Eisenstadt repeated problems with the Jewish butchers.
So had the December 27, 1716 even the rabbi judge delegate because of breach of contract increase the price of meat by the butcher Rafael was Jakob Pollak, Because the community had filed a complaint against Mr. Pollak,

that he had sold to Jews 2.5 years through more expensive [than Christians], and that every pound of half a Hungarian penny.

Mr. Pollak course, denied the charge, because he was not been aware of having sold the meat more expensive. It was decided that in the present case an unknown robbing people present, which one can not defer the spoil. Therefore, this would be - now it's called well Diversion - only through the promotion of a public work to make up. Rafael Pollak had to fix up at his own expense a moat around the cemetery, which is necessary so that the cascading waters from the mountains do not penetrate into the graves ...

Am February 6, 1724 was against the Fleischhauer Wolf ben Meir (= Wolff Marcus, Sheep and goat Fleischhauer) under investigation for the offense in the exercise of his profession:

The accused was earlier in suspicion not sold ritually prepared wine of Jews to have. Well ... was [known] that he was looking for meat that had not been investigated properly in terms of palatability to sell. Likewise, it turned out that he brought meat that came from a slaughtered more than three days animals for sale without having previously subjected to the prescribed wash. He had this to evade excise duty, made it into the house of a Gentile and still left unsealed so.

The penalty is: inability to witness and taking an oath, withdrawing active and passive suffrage, etc., this was still a hefty penance and his seat in the synagogue lost the suspect for a whole year.

Wolff Marcus should not have been zartbesaiteter man, for the October 11th the same year was

sentenced the defendant, who is known as a violent man, ... to a fine of 39 pennies for pain and suffering and as a substitute for medical costs .... It may also not be called to the Torah or honored with a synagogue function for a period of three months. he may be called in at any municipal assembly for a period of five years ...

And less than a month later, on 05. November 1724complained Israel Modern against Fleischhauer Abraham Zoref and Simeon ben Chanan property damage.

The defendants have thrown on the previous Simchat-Torafeste with stones around, so the windows were broken in the house of the plaintiff. The verdict was: Abraham Zoref has to pay three pounds of tallow candles to the synagogue as punishment. For a period of three months exclusion of any synagogue function, further withdrawal of active and passive suffrage for six years ...

Am December 28, 1730 was the municipality employees Bendit ben Abraham accused

treats the parties to favor one good one to have sold the other lean and bad meat.

And on January 2, 1808 made the stately Fleischhauer Moses Kittsee-Wolf and Moses Samuel contained in a board meeting of the community,

that they would have to work as a result of extremely rising price of slaughter cattle with great loss and therefore would not be able to provide the community with kosher meat. In consideration of these reasons nor the levying of half a cruiser them is granted per pound on the already contractually guaranteed 150 fl.. This applies a date until after Pesach. For the Pesachfeiertage even the current agreement is not valid.

Vogelkopf-Haggada, Süddeutschland, spätes 13. Jahrhundert, Schächtszene

Bird's head Haggadah, Southern Germany, late 13th century, Schächtszene

(More about the bird's head-Haggda in: Pictures of the Week - The bird's head Haggadah)


In any case, led - perhaps - the recurring problems with the Jewish butchers the community Eisenstadt to the fact that the

March 15, 1821

a contract between the Jewish community and the Christian Fleischhauer masters Sebastian Schwemmer and Johann Hackstock for supplying the community with kosher meat has been closed.

The agreement was read to all parishioners on schedule and considerably and no one had taken the slightest objection to it and decency and everything found to be very good and for the benefit of the community ...

So the Jewish community is committed to obtain the utter need for kosher meat, which is used in the alleys at obbenannte Mr. Schwemmer and chopping block alone by them.

The contract was valid between 6 April 1821 and 6 April 1827 and governed all obligations of both parties meticulous. Anyway, highly remarkable, as usually, the Jewish butcher supplied their Christian neighbors, but rarely reversed.

So both men above connect further that they can provide the community with good beef perfectly well and have that everything Rindviehe required both for stately Hofbank, as well as the entire demand, which same on the villages never need may be beaten, but all use ... must be geschachtet by the local Beglaubte ...

Interestingly, two years later, in 1823, fl in a contract for the provision of a loan from the 260th to Moses Ahron Weiler as a contractor of the Jewish community Mr. Abraham Hirsch [Schwarz] (From Rechnitz, Fleischhauer in Eisenstadt) is mentioned!

Since the two Christian Fleischhauer the Jewish community, as we learn from the contract, even exclusively supplied, Mr. Black may not have been officially Servant as a butcher.

... the two gentlemen have [Christian] to use Fleischhacker master every week for the installed supplied meat to the bank's servant because of their payment, otherwise the community for the payment to the above Mr. liable nothing.

The municipal Fleischhauer Abraham Hirsch Black was in fact only just October 19, 1828 ordered, namely by 6 fl. wages weekly.

Moritz SchwarzThe son of Abraham Hirsch Black is on January 03, 1833 the first entry in the Geburtsmatriken the Jewish community Eisenstadt. The profession of the father is also indicated therein as "Bank servant".

Matriken Geburt Moritz Schwarz, 03. Jänner 1833, Eisenstadt

Matriken Geburt Moritz Schwarz, 03. Jänner 1833, Eisenstadt



We are not told why the Jewish community business with the kosher meat again entrusted after the contract expires with the Christian butchers Jewish butchers.

But we know that only a few months later, on January 5, 1828, A supervisory body in the municipality meat market to protect the buyer against overreaching by the butcher had to be ordered ...