First presentation: The Torawimpel for Rabbi Akiva Eger - 01. Marche Swan 522 = 29 October 1761
Rabbi Akiba Eger der Jüngere gehört zu den größten, bedeutendsten und wohl auch bekanntesten Gelehrten der jüdischen Geschichte: 1791 Rabbiner in Märkisch-Friedland und, nachdem er einen Ruf nach Eisenstadt abgelehnt hatte, ab 14. September 1815 Oberlandesrabbiner in Posen, gest. ebendort am 13. Tischre 5598 = 12. Oktober 1837 (der Jahrzeittag von Rabbi Akiba Eger ist heuer in wenigen Tagen, am 22. September 2018).
The first name Akiba gave him his mother in memory of her late father at age 37 in 1758 Rabbi Akiva Eger the Elder, Rabbi of Pressburg. The surname Eger took Akiba at the Younger out of respect for his grandfather, but signed only on official documents with "Jacob Moses Eger" (Jacob as anagram of Akiba). Otherwise a lifetime with "Akiba Güns from Eisenstadt".
The late Rabbi Akiva Eiger years when he was A"d Posen city street accompanied by two judges of the city Rabbi Yaakov Kalwaria Rabbi Moshe Landsbarg late
"Our Rabbi Akiva Eger, s (a souvenir) (preserving ÖGE) m, at the age of 74 years on the streets of Poznan, accompanied by two judges of the city: the rabbi, H (err) Jacob Kalwari and H (err) Moses Landsberg, s (a memory) (to be preserved ÖGE) m " .
Akiba Eger wurde am 01. Marcheschwan 5522 = Donnerstag, 29. Oktober 1761 in Eisenstadt (oder Pressburg?, s.u. sowohl zu Ort als auch Datum The circumcision) als erstgeborener Sohn des Moses Güns-Schlesinger and the Gütel, daughter of Akiva Eger the ElderBorn and we are delighted to present the first time with the Torawimpel for Akiva Eger evidence that the 01 Marche Swan 5522 = 29 October 1761 is the correct date of birth!
Because for his exact date of birth a lively discussion, which continues today ensued over the past 180 years. Thus we find, with one exception, on virtually all sites that write about Rabbi Akiva Eger (from Wikipedia  up to Jewish multiple sites  and genealogical portals ), The wrong date of birth, namely the 11. Marcheschwan 522 = 08. November 1761, Incidentally, the same image provide the relevant print publications (eg Jewish encyclopedias, biographies  etc.).
Only when it comes to online resources Hebrew language Wikipedia site are as a birthday correctly 01 Marche Swan 5522 = October 29, 1761. And refers (in footnote 3) On the Hebrew-language publication of Saul Blum "גדולי ישראל. חיי הגאון רבנו רבי עקיבא איגר "(" Life of outstanding scholars, our rabbi, Rabbi Akiva Eger "), Warsaw 1938 (reprinted in Israel 1967), page 7, footnote 1, Published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the death of Akiba Eger .
In the same footnote to the Hebrew-speaking Wikipedia site states that Saul Blum contradicts the earlier biographies that indicate the date of birth on the 14th Marche fluctuations = 08 November 1761st It would here probably 11 Marche fluctuations = 08 November 1761 called (the 14th Marche Swan would be the 11th of November)!
Saul Blum mentioned in his publication to present in Eisenstadt Torawimpel of Akiva Eger and quoted the inscription on the pennant to bring but without a photo proof.
This evidence was submitted here! The Torawimpel for Akiva Eger is first presented here in detail and presented in a few months in the permanent exhibition of our museum.
On Torawimpel is a cloth (usually the diaper in which the child has been cropped), which is wound around the Torah and transferred to the 3rd birthday the son of the synagogue.
It is crucial that the date of birth on each Torawimpel always the biggest reliance should be placed in because of Torawimpel from the mother, of course, the date of birth each knows best is made!
The Torawimpel - the overall view
The child of Rabbi Moshe Ben-Akiva The Guns born Bmz"t Thursday "Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan Tkc"b octavo D will raise him to Torah, chuppah and good deeds
The boy Akiba, son of our Master, the Lord Moses Güns, who was born under a lucky star signs on Thursday, the new moon of the Marche Swan 522 (= October 29, 1761) after the small era. God would let him grow up to Torah scholars, to a (good) husband and that he may do good deeds.
Above the text:
Zodiac sign of Scorpio
Below the text:
Fierce tiger light as an eagle swift as a deer and a lion
Hard as the leopard and light as the eagle, soon as the deer and strong as a lion
An analysis of the inscription (s)
The individual sections are possible so photographed that each of the next section already or from the previous section can still be seen at least one letter / a sign, in order to understand the relationship better.
Akiva child "The child Akiba" or in our case rather "The boy Akiba„,
Annotation: Boy means both "child" and "son / boy".
The Guns Moshe Ben H'r'r „Son d (it) H (err), u (nseres master) Moses Güns„,
Annotation: H'r'r is short for Rabbi Rabbi "The Lord, the Lord ..." or Rabbi Rabbi "The Lord our master."
Born Bm'z't "Born u (nter a) g (skinning) S (tern characters)"
Annotation: Bm'z't is short for Good luck.
Thursday "R'h Marcheshvan "Thursday, N (eumond) t (ag) of the Marche Swan"
Remarks: Thursday" "Day 5 = Thursday"; R'h is short for new moon "The first day of the month in the Jewish calendar" or just "new moon".
Month, preceded by a month of 29 days, have one new moon (which is of course always the first day of the new month), month, preceded by a month of 30 days, have 2 new moon days, in the first new moon of 30th day of the previous month and the second new moon of the first day of the month in the new month.
The month of Cheshvan or Marche swan following the month Tishri, which always has 30 days. Consequently, there are two new moon day Marche swan.
Now, for dates in which the 30th of the previous month or the first of the following month new moon is indicated (in Hebrew about grave inscriptions), usually A New Moon or The month in written, that: "1. New moon "or" 2. New moon ".
But this is not the case with our pennant, it is "only" new moon "New moon". However, in the pennant inscription whether 1st or 2nd new moon day by day of the week is specified, namely "Thursday" clearly answered, is. And Thursday in the first week of the Marche swan in the year 5522 was the second new moon and the first Marche swan.
T'k'c'b to \ K D wins "522 n (ah small) Z (eitrechnung)". G (ott) may "
Remarks: The numerical value of the letters Tkcb 522, the words "after the small era" (which means that the year 5000 is given without, so 522 instead of 5522) is usually abbreviated Hebrew with Octavo, Short for A small detail displayed "after the small count", and even sometimes speak again shortened and about with a ligature of the three Hebrew letters. We find an example about the grave inscription Wilhelm WolfWho is buried at the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt (in the pennant inscription in the ligature but only the two letters ל and ק to recognize):
Das jüdische Jahr (5)522 ist 1761/1762. Da das jüdische Jahr am 01. Tischre (September/Oktober) beginnt und der folgende Monat der Marcheschwan ist (und daher noch in den Herbst fällt), ist das Geburtsdatum 01. Marcheschwan 522 der 29. Oktober 1761 (bzw. selbstverständlich der 28. Oktober ab Sonnenuntergang, s. u. The circumcision).
The word for "God" is (traditionally) abbreviated and above in the transcription of me with a D played. I follow Saul Blum (cited above), who transcribed the same way.
In the pennant inscription we find depicted as abbreviertes Tetragrammaton the name of God, for which I have no grapheme available to represent it. The two The Y. each have the numerical value of 10, so a total of 20, and the lying (!) Vav has the value 6, so together 26. The advertised Tetragrammaton Jehovah also has the numerical value of 26 (10 + 5 + 6 + 5).
Gad Type explore and abroad, and Lm't "Let him grow up to Torah scholars, to a (good) husband and that he may do g (ute) T (ata)."
Remarks: All six words in this section in Figure 6 are abbreviated. Meaning behind these abbreviations can I see any, except perhaps that they should allow the proposed text goes on the pennant.
Gad ' instead of grow ( "Let grow"), Letter' instead of him ("him"), Character ' instead of Torah (Literally, "the Torah") and ABROAD instead of Canopy (Literally, "to the ceremony" or "the wedding canopy").
The embroidered apostrophes I can not show here, so they are by the usual ’ replaced.
The three wishes that the child grow into a Torah scholars and a good husband, and may perform many good deeds / works, the standard requirements on virtually all Torawimpeln are.
Also on this pennant for Akiva Eger we find to the wishes of appropriate illustrations under the text:
- a man carrying a Torah scroll
- a wedding canopy (Chuppa) at which occurs a wedding.
The desire to "do good deeds / works," has to do with two meanings of mitzvah, so on the one hand to accomplish mitzvah as a commandment of God good deeds for which man of God will be rewarded, and on the other mitzvahs as the totality of religious binding Dos and Don'ts to which man should hold.
Saul Blum (ibid) writes in his transcription of the pennant inscription at the end, ie after the wishes, nor a Amen "Amen". In fact, we see many Torawimpeln this "Amen" or Artist Sala "Amen Sela" immediately behind the wishes (see picture). On the pennant for Akiva Eger but is definitely not a "Amen" embroidered!
Figures 3 and 4 above the main text:
Scorpio "Zodiac sign of Scorpio"
Picture 2 to 4 below the main text:
Fierce tiger light as an eagle swift as a deer and a lion "Hard as the leopard and light as the eagle, soon as the deer and strong as a lion".
Annotation: Ethics of the Fathers 5:23 "Judah, son Temas, says spending Be strong as the leopard, light as an eagle, swift as the deer and strong as the lion of your father's will in heaven."
In Figure 2 we see as an illustration next to the wishes of a leopard, on picture 3 deer and eagles and Figure 4 a lion.
Akiva Eger was 522 (= 06 November 1761) in Bratislava Rabbi Wolf Benjamin Thebes, one of the leaders and head of the Bratislava municipality circumcised on the 09th Marche Swan:
Friday As"k T. Marcheshvan would sap alone with SB-year-old boy character Akiva, Rabbi Moshe Ginz "H Friday V (orabend of) (piece) Sch (abbat) 09 Marche Swan: I alone circumcision performed in boys Akiba, the son of, s (a name) [was] i (n Israel) [praised ], Tora (learned), H (err) Moses Güns ".
As"k short for Saudi holy Sabbath "Eve of the holy Shabbat."
"... alone performed the circumcision ...": In many other entries, such as those immediately above and below, is to read that Rabbi Thebes performed the circumcision with another mohel.
SB short for His name Israel "His name (was) in Israel (praised)" ; s. Rut 4,14 .
This entry circumcision confirmed, of course, the date of birth 01. Marche Swan or that the date of birth 11. Marche Swan, as it is rumored majority (see above), can in no way agree!
Der Korrektheit halber sei noch erwähnt, dass Donnerstag (= 5. Tag) = 01. Marcheschwan = 2. Neumondtag (wie jeder jüdische Tag) am Mittwoch Abend begann, das Geburtsdatum daher auch der 28. Oktober spät abends sein könnte. Allerdings spricht doch besonders die Verschiebung der Beschneidung auf den 09. Marcheschwan mehr für ein Geburtsdatum am 29. Oktober abends (s.u.).
Dieser Beschneidungseintrag wirft zumindest zwei (neue) Fragen auf:
- Why circumcision Akiva Eger at 09 and not at 08. Marche Swan took placeAs it would be if he was born on 01 Marche Swan?
Two possible explanations:
-) Akiba Eger wurde in der Abenddämmerung vom 01. Marcheschwan zum 02. Marcheschwan (29. Oktober – 30. Oktober) geboren, weshalb als Beschneidungsdatum von Rabbiner Theben der 09. Marcheschwan festgelegt wurde. Es geht dabei, darum, dass bis Einbruch der Nacht zwar noch der 01. Marcheschwan als Geburtsdatum gilt, aber Rabbiner Theben sicherheitshalber/vorsichtshalber am 09. Marcheschwan die Beschneidung durchführen muss (also 1 Tag später). Das ist auch eine (noch heute) absolut übliche Vorgangsweise, da die Beschneidung am 7. Tag ungültig wäre. (So wird es hierzulande praktiziert, den Grund für die Entscheidung von Rabbiner Theben, die Beschneidung am 09. Marcheschwan zu machen, kennen wir nicht, es bleiben Vermutungen).
Dass Akiba Eger tatsächlich am 02. Marcheschwan geboren ist, möchte ich ausschließen, weil dann am Wimpel nicht „Neumondtag Marcheschwan“ geschrieben stünde.
-) Gesundheitliche Probleme des Knaben führten zu einer Verlegung der Beschneidung um einen Tag. Diese Möglichkeit muss zumindest erwähnt werden, da wir de facto nicht wissen, um wieviel Uhr Akiba Eger geboren wurde.
- Akiva Eger was born in Bratislava and not in Eisenstadt, as always assumed?
If we consider that the journey in 1761 from birth Eisenstadt to Bratislava was somewhat difficult for a family with a newborn child but who Beschneidungsort Bratislava could have been simply chosen because Akiva Eger in Bratislava - and not in Eisenstadt - born has been?
That Bratislava and the origin of Akiba Eger's mother Gütel, daughter of the Bratislava Rabbi Akiva Eger the Elder is, seems to me to be far-fetched to justify circumcision of his son.
The Hebrew language Wikipedia site has in footnote 4 the problem with the birth out.
Nur der Vollständigkeit sei noch erwähnt, dass der 08. Marcheschwan im Jahr 522 einer der תענית בה“ב-Tage war, der erste Donnerstag der sogenannten BaHaB(-Fasttage). Das sind jeweils drei Fasttage am Montag, Donnerstag und darauffolgenden Montag nach dem ersten Schabbat (das war der 03. Marcheschwan) nach dem Neumond, und zwar sowohl nach dem Pesach- als auch nach dem Sukkotfest.
Allerdings darf an BaHaB eine Beschneidung durchgeführt werden (vorausgesetzt, es ist wirklich der 8. Tag, wie auch an Tisch’a be-Av oder Jom Kippur) und fällt daher als Grund für die Verschiebung der Beschneidung auf 09. Marcheschwan weg.
A year later, we find the same Pinkas circumcision entry of the brother of Akiva Eger, Samuel Schlesinger.
In the genealogy portals is indicated as year of birth of Samuel in 1755 , This is not only wrong because we know through the Pinkas the circumcision date and year of birth, but also because Akiva Eger known to be the first-born son was (the very reason received the name of his now-deceased grandfather "Akiba"). Samuel Güns-Schlesinger was born 1,762th
Two German-language biographies
I limit myself to here two of the oldest German BiographiesWhich, however, are among the classics and probably also laid the foundation for the tradition of false birth dates ...
Saul Isaac combatants, biography of the illustrious, most blessed Mr. Akiva Eger, Oberrabbinen to Posen, author of a collection of legal opinions; along with a funeral poem on his passing, Leszno. 1838
Dr. Isaac combatants, a student Rabbi Akiva Eger, published his biography ( "Printed at the expense of the author and to have Mr. Aaron Jacob Kaempf in Lissa - Grand Duchy of Poznan -., And the author in Salzuflen 1838") only a few months after the death of Akiba Eger (12 October 1837).
Fighting based his biography on three main sources he lists in his preface:
- My esteemed, too early for the Talmudic Sciences deceased teacher and patron Rabbi Joel, lecturer at Lissa, from whose zuweiligen stories I got to know the past history and the individuality of our hero, whose disciple and favorite he was;
- the next sphere of high deceased, where I was a witness of many a self and collected many notes also from the mouth of well-informed people;
- written communications worthy men whose names to call their modesty forbids me ...
Image caption: Image Pious Gaon Rabbi of the entire Diaspora Rabbi Akiva Eiger zt late
"Image of the rabbi, the outstanding scholars of the Pious, the master of all those who are in the Diaspora, our teacher, our rabbi Akiva Eger, s (a souvenir) (preserving ÖGE) m".
Kämpfs actual biography Akiba Eger begins with the birth 5512 = 1762 and supplemented combatants in the footnote the Hebrew date: Fourteen Marcheshvan twelve octavo DCL „14. Marcheschwan 512 n (ah) K (linen) Z (eitrechnung). In the text itself the civil year 1762 crossed out (because obviously misprints) and 1752 corrected. Of the 14. Marcheschwan 512 but the 02. November 1751.
Anyway conducted by whom - - Correction of the already false birth date wrong so also is.
The author focuses on "youth story of our hero" and is itself not exhaustive his biography. Many of the later discussed (and corrected) data originate but obviously in the biography Kämpfs (about page 5):
Thus we see the young scholar, according to the fashion, in an age of eighteen enter into matrimony.
He adds in a footnote Hebrew quote from the Sayings of the Fathers 5.25: Ben eighteen canopy "... eighteen years of age for marriage ...".
But Akiva Eger married - after other sources - in the summer of 1781 Happy Thanksgivin (Gliickchen) Margulies (1762-1796), the daughter of the wealthy merchant Itzig M. from Leszno (Lissa) in Wielkopolska. So therefore he was already in age 20 been! In Leszno / Lissa Akiva Eger had opened a Talmud school, but rejected any rabbinic position.
Happy Hanukkah died on 12 Adar I = 556 February 21, 1796. Later that year, - after other sources August 29, 1796 - married Eger a second time, and that his niece Breindel that, in 1836, died a year before him.
Fighting that says on page 42 of three wives, surprising even from a temporal perspective:
He left 15 children who mourn the tenderest father in him. His last wife, the third companion his life, he felt ... in death ahead ...
The Hebrew-speaking Wikipedia white of 15 childrenThat Akiva Eger left, in the cited genealogy portals  However, we find 21 children, but the difference could also arise because at the time of the death of Rabbi Akiva Eger some of the children no longer live. The biography on the Website Steinheim Institute specifies:
He had his first wife and four of his second thirteen more children.
2 Children are briefly mentioned here:
Akiba Eger's daughter Sara (Sarl) (1790-1832) was the second wife of the Bratislava Rabbi Chatam Sofer (1762-1839). Akiba Eger's son was only a year younger than himself.
Eger's son from his first marriage, Salomon Eger (1786-1852), succeeded his father as chief rabbi of Posen.
Overall, the biography Kämpfs makes a little scientific impression, in fact, it is an arbitrarily assembled collection of homages and unfortunately many at least questionable data.
Lewysohns biography is, as he suggests in the preface, basically a new edition in German, revision and amendment / completion of "Toledoth R., Aqiva 'Egär, memories of it sons to her father, ed. Moshe Bleichrode, Berlin 1862; Reproduction Warsaw in 1875; Lodz in 1930, 30 S .; Jerusalem 1975; 1990". Bleichrode so Lewysohn, is the great-grandson of Rabbi Akiva Eger.
Some lines further (page VI), he tries to take the wind out of the sails of the critics:
Current font does not quite claim to be scientific, because it appears in the simple garb of popularity ... she has the sole purpose to lead us far comprehensive picture of life, the traits and the work of a distinguished man in front of his eyes.
Lewysohn can to Fight a good word and criticized him because of his imperfect and incomplete biography Eger, but stumbles to a large extent in the same error traps - such as equal on page 2 regarding the date of birth:
The mentioned Gittel (su mother of Akiva Eger, author's note.) Gave birth to three sons, the oldest of whom was named Akiba. It this is the reverend, world famous Rabbi Akiva Eger, called teachers of the exiles'. - He was born in 1762 - according to the Jewish calendar on 11. Marcheschwan 5522 - The Light of the World.
And in the footnote 4 to he explains his source:
After specifying the Dr. Fighting on 14 Marche Swan 5512, ie a difference a decade, but probably the authenticity will be awarded to the information of the two sons of Rabbi Akiba.
Obviously, the main source is doing here for the wrong birthday statement on: The sons of Rabbi Akiva Eger have 11 Marche Swan brought into the world 522nd
On page 7 Lewysohn is the same opinion as combatants that Akiva Eger would in fact married at age 18 (see above), and cites in footnote 10 the same reason:
R. Akiva Eger was at his entry into the married state eighteen; analogous to the Sayings of the Fathers 5.24.
Lewysohn knows - as opposed to combatants - of course, only two wives Akiva Eger and commented on the children very carefully, without giving specific figures (page 46):
From his marriage to his second wife ersprossen him several sons and daughters, of whom two sons and two daughters were still unmarried at his passing. All sons reached a high level of scholarship and secular education. His daughters he married with learned and pious men who are resident in Poland, Russia and other countries. - His second wife rushed him half years ahead in the realm of the afterlife. After her death, he was no longer one into another wide Eheverhältniß. ‒
The Eger family in Eisenstadt
On older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt we find the graves of many family members of Rabbi Akiva Eger:
Father: Mose ben Samuel Güns-Schlesinger, gest. 1790
Mother: Gütel Güns-SchlesingerDaughter Akiba Eger the Elder, d. 1811
Brothers: Samuel Schlesinger, gest. 1835
maternal grandmother: Jütel LeidesdorferReferred to in the grave inscription as "Rabbi", d. 1781
paternal grandfather: Samuel Margulies-Jafe-Schlesinger, gest. 1756
Paternal grandmother: Sarl Güns-Schlesinger, daughter of Moses Broda, gest. 1757
paternal great-grandfather: Israel Marx (Ascher Ansel ben Mordechai Jafe-Margulies) Schlesinger, gest. 1734
Furthermore, we find on the older Jewish cemetery numerous uncles, aunts, brother in law and sister in law and nieces and nephew of Rabbi Akiva Eger, mentioned on the above blog pages and links.
 The image on the Hebrew-speaking Wikipedia site seems to be the same to me, but there is the financial statement 1837. It has to be (before the end of October) in 1835 or 1836, when Rabbi Akiva Eger was 74 years old, as we read in the Hebrew inscription of our image. Also there is something there uncertainty as to whether this is Rabbi Moses Landsberg, it could also be Samuel Vogelsdorf. In the footnote and references to the image. [Back from footnote (1)]
 On the website of Chabad.org one finds no month and date, but not quite correct Hebrew year Date: 5521 (instead of 5522). but also the wrong date of birth also show specialized sites like JewishEncyclopedia or The Yivo Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. [Back from footnote (3)]
 For example, in "Julius Schoeps, New Dictionary of Judaism, Gütersloh 1992"Or in"Jewish Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, 1987, DH". A fairly detailed bibliography is available on the Website Steinheim Institute, Even more extensive bibliography in the publication of Edward David Luft, The Jews of Posen Province in the Nineteenth Century. A Selective Source Book, Research Guide, and Supplement to The Naturalized Jews of the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1834 and 1835, Washington 2015Which although not exclusively Akiva Eger concerns. [Return to text (5)]
 In any case, most noteworthy the publication of Edward David Luft, The Jews of Posen Province in the Nineteenth Century. A Selective Source Book, Research Guide, and Supplement to The Naturalized Jews of the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1834 and 1835, Washington 2015Where the most comprehensive and annotated bibliography, evenly also to Rabbi Akiva Eger place. If I am not mistaken, only has Rabbi Dr. Siegbert Neufeld in MGWJ (monthly magazine of History and Science of Judaism), vol. 68, 1924, p 331 01 Marche fluctuations = October 29 as a date of birth of all other biographies remain at 11. Marche fluctuations = 08 November!
Two authors have also 08 November 1761 = 11 Marche Swan as a birthday, but added that this birth is the valid for today's Gregorian calendar date, and hold it in that time what has been in use the Julian calendar of 01 Marche Swan was like that Ernst Fraenkel, "The Poznań Raw: 100th death day Rabbi Akiva Eger", in: "Jewish community paper for the synagogue communities in Prussia and North Germany, Berlin.. Prussian State Association of Jewish Communities, Vol 15, No. 10, October 1 1937, pp 1-2 and Rafal Witkowski, Rabbi Akiva Eger, NPM (Chronicle of Poznań), 2006, No. 3, pp. 44-50).
ME is this theory but based on a methodological error: Even if the Julian calendar would be used, which can be I think, discussed admirably in 1761, would any conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars only to the civil date, so the November 08, refer. But the Hebrew date of 01 Marche Swan, stand firm, however, and can - however - both in Julian and in the Gregorian calendar are converted.
To clarify (JK = Julian calendar, GK = Gregorian calendar):
11. Marche Swan 522 = 28 October 1761 (JK), 08 November 1761 (GK)
01. Marcheschwan 522 = 18. October 1761 (JK) October 29, 1761 (GK).
[Return to text (6)]
 For the resolution of this shortcut, I would like to thank Prof. Yaacov Shavit of Tel Aviv University, who visited the museum in Eisenstadt few days ago. [Return to text (7)]