Übermorgen, am 14. Adar (heuer der 21. März) ist Purim. Wir wünschen allen Leserinnen und Lesern unserer Koscheren Melange ein fröhliches Purim! חג פורים שמח לכולם! Am Tag vor Purim,…
Tomorrow, on 14 Adar (March 21 this year) is Purim.
We wish all our readers a happy melange kosher Purim!
Happy Purim to everyone!
The day before Purim, so tomorrow, on 13 Adar, is Taanit ester, a so-called "small fast day" for Ester, whose source is found in the Book of Esther 4.15 to 16:
Ester did answer Mordecai: Go and gather all the Jews who are in Susa, and fast for me that you do not eat and drink for three days, night or day. Even I and my maids will fast as you ...
What is it about Taanit esters, explains Rebbetzin Noemi Berger, Born Schlesinger, wife of the former chief rabbi of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg, very nice in the article "A smaller 'fasting for Esther„.
Even for Purim 5775/2015 we have in a blog Article pointed out the serious backdrop of the happy Purim and the legendary extension of the biblical story with an illustration from the Leipzig Machsor 51v occupied. On 52r there were, the prequel to this illustration, because the illustrator had not been content to just the "result", ie the destruction of the Jewish persecutor Haman represent, but describes - almost in detail - the whole story as it in Jewish tradition was understood:
Leipzig Machsor 52r, 3 illustrations
The three illustrations in detail:
Leipziger Machsor 52r, Illustration links
On the left picture we see ester in royal garb and with a crown in front of the seated on a throne King Achashverosh, who hands her his golden scepter whose peak touches with the right hand, as we read in Ester 5.8:
And the third day are esters dressed royal and entered the inner court of the king's palace opposite the palace of the king. And the king sat on his royal throne in the royal hall opposite the gate of the palace. And when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she found favor in his eyes. And the king held out the golden scepter in his hand esters. As Ester drew near, and touched the top of the scepter. Then the king said to her: What is it, esters, Queen? And what do you desire? The half of the kingdom shall be given you. Esther said, If it please the king, let the king with Haman come to the banquet that I have prepared for today. The king said, Hasten Haman, bringing so done what Ester has said! and when the king and Haman came to the banquet that Ester had prepared the king said to Ester, as they drank wine, What is thy petition, Esther? It shall be given you. And what do you desire? Would it be the half of the kingdom it shall be performed. Since esters replied, My petition and my request is: Have I found favor in the king and if it please the king to grant my request and do according to my desire, let the king with Haman come to the banquet that I will prepare for them want. Tomorrow I will do what the king has said.
Leipzig Machsor 52r, Illustration center
In the middle is just to see how Haman leads the royal horse to Mordecai. The biblical story found in the book ester 6.7 to 13:
And Haman said to the king, For the man whom the king wishes to honor, let them bring royal apparel, which tends to wear the king, and Ross, it rides the king and whose head a crown royal, and one should dress and Ross give one of the king that he may array the man whom the king wishes to honor and lead him on the horse through the city square and can proclaim before him, Thus shall be done to the man whom the king wishes to honor. The king said to Haman, Make haste, and take dress and Ross, as you have said, and do even so to Mordecai the Jew sitting in the king's gate, and let nothing fail of all that you said. Then took Haman dress and Ross and dressed Mordecai and led him through the square of the city, and proclaimed before him, Thus shall happen to the man to whom the king wishes to honor. And Mordecai came again to the king's gate. But Haman hurried home, mourning and having his head covered, and his wife Zeresh and all his friends told him everything that had happened to him. Since said to him, his friends and his wife Zeresh: Is Mordecai, before whom you have begun to fall, seed of the Jews, thou shalt not prevail against him, but you will completely come to the case before him.
In Jewish tradition, this royal commission for a longer conversation between Haman and the king in which Haman tried in vain to dissuade the king from letting the Jew Mordechai get this honor is.
Leipzig Machsor 52r, Illustration right
The illustration on the far right is derived entirely from the Jewish legend: we see Mordechai with Jewish hat, as he teaches three students (bareheaded). All hold an open book in her hands.
For when the pageant with Mordechai am led by Haman horse at the house of Haman passed, the daughter of Haman the attic of watched and wanted to humiliate the Mordechai more. She thought of course that Mordechai lead the horse and her father Haman was the honored Reitende!
So she poured the contents of their chamber pot the horse leader on the head. Only when Haman turned around, she realized that she had not compromised Mordechai, but her father and jumped out the skylight down to death.
2017 gründete Günther Havranek den Verein „Rettet den jüdischen Friedhof Währing„. Sprecherin des Vereins ist Dr.in Jennifer Kickert. In der Grundsatzerklärung heißt es unter anderem: Der Verein „Rettet den jüdischen…
2017 Günther Havranek founded the association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing". Spokesperson of the association is Dr.in Jennifer Kickert. In the Declaration of Principles states, inter alia:
The association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing" has set itself the goal of supporting the Jewish Community of Vienna with the necessary remedial measures. For that donations are collected, set up a small museum, organized volunteer work to reduce plant growth and organizes regular tours to raise public awareness of this so important place in Vienna.
The Austrian Jewish Museum in Eisenstadt is happy to support the club, especially when in addition to the planned restructuring measures and a really serious and long overdue, thorough work-up of this famous cemetery, that of a unique document of the Viennese culture, art, economy and society in the period Biedermeier is going.
In concrete terms means that we successively the Hebrew grave inscriptions (there are thousands of them), transcribe and translate also possible, but in any case the most important data is read out.
A happy coincidence was yesterday that I just looking at the picture of that grave stone, as the title picture for the Facebook site the association is used to read "by the inhabitants of Eisenstadt" and me then the inscription have looked closer. A first beautiful example about the close relationship between Eisenstadt and Vienna:
Heinrich (Zvi Hirsch) Janowitz, 14 Av 626 (= Thursday, July 26, 1866)
Background photo from the Yad Vashem Hall of Stars in the children's memorial. (Taken from Wikimedia Commons) Context In Eisenstadt there is no Holocaust memorial. Time and again, from different sides ...
Background photo from the Yad Vashem Hall of Stars in the children's memorial. (Taken from Wikimedia Commons)
In Eisenstadt there is no Holocaust memorial.
Again and again (from various political parties, the churches will be (see below the Letter from the pastor), As well as the Research Society Burgenland, etc.) Holocaust Memorial (!) Required for Eisenstadt.
Concrete proposals for such a monument or a more detailed justification for such a memorial, but "it just lacked in Eisenstadt", at least to me are not known.
That the requirements for a Holocaust monument in the state capital Eisenstadt were reinforced made in recent times, especially in connection with the common / bedenkjahr 2018, is no coincidence. more thinking / memorials in Burgenland were built especially in recent years.
A Jewish museum can and this discussion does not want his city to escape, not least because a Jewish museum always is institutionalized actor remembering (s. To particularly our blog article "Peculiarities of memory„).
The Holocaust monuments in Burgenland - A brief overview of the past year
Michael Feyer it was also the one in 2017 with his club "We remember. Encounter with the Jewish Mattersburg"The Holocaust Memorial in Mattersburg presented. A monument that dominates the very prominent Fountain Square and the ancient monument replaced at the site of the former synagogue, so to speak. For a critique of this monument see my comment below.
Also in 2017 was the Memorial in Kobersdorf presents that had been initiated by the former mayor of the municipality, Erwin Steiner House. are on the monument itself, unlike the other monuments, including the names of victims, addresses, etc. Between murdered and displaced persons but did not differ, the list is also incomplete.
Very sensitive and considered one went in Frauenkirchen before where built on the site of the former synagogue in the "Garden of Remembrance" and officially presented in 2016 was. The initiative was carried out by Dr. Herbert Brettl and the association "Initiative Remember Frauenkirchen". was accompanied / is the initiative of lectures and activities.
Together, all these mentioned thinking and memorials first is the fact that they are places in which previously held no explicit and specific culture of remembrance, at least not with a clear reference to places or places in town that have the function of a place of remembrance. While there are in Kobersdorf, German Kreutz, Mattersburg and Frauenkirchen Jewish cemeteries, but they were never really active and permanently attached to the places in the memory work.
This is also the crucial difference to Eisenstadt:
In Eisenstadt there since 1972 our Austrian Jewish Museum, The oldest Jewish museum in Europe since 1945. It was in the heart of the former Jewish quarter, at the Palais des court factor and Hungarian national Rabbi Samson Wertheimer, expressly commonly referred to as memory and memorial to the seven communities and to the former Jewish community of Eisenstadt in particular founded!
The museum is next to the synagogue, The only "living synagogue" of today's Burgenland, at the end of the permanent exhibition memorial roomWhich is dedicated to the memory of the Jews of the seven municipalities.
The Jewish Museum is Location in the Jewish quarter, Located on the edge of this district is the two Jewish cemeteriesWhich are closely involved in museum work has always been and the only Jewish cemeteries in Austria, which are completely refurbished and well documented! Each cemetery has always primarily also commemorative character!
Both almost all tourists and particularly the approximately 200 school groups from all over Austria, which annually visit the Jewish Museum, the Synagogue, the Jewish Quarter and the two Jewish cemeteries, do so as "active Gedenkakt"To the history of Jews in the city and the region.
Since at least 1992, the museum pays them particular attention to the meticulous and painstaking analysis of the history of Jews in the seven communities, especially the Jews in Eisenstadt.
We prefer as a Jewish Museum alternative (!) Forms a monument for obvious practical reasons. Or in other words: Before thinking about a Holocaust memorial, we need to know the names and stories of people and their children and grandchildren are themselves no longer in Eisenstadt. This first step we consider to be a sine qua non.
In particular, the processing of the younger Jewish cemetery has been in the so-called overall / bedenkjahr 2018 that - despite intensive work - still too many questions remain open: We do not know what happened to the children and grandchildren of about 500 late in Eisenstadt or in the death books recorded Jews has happened, we do not know many fates of the resident in January 1938 in Eisenstadt 446 Jews.
See especially our blog post: Commemorative year 2018ff.
Specifically, this means:
Before the history of Jews and Jewish history is not so worked up that the most important questions about the fate of the Jews of this city can be answered, makes a "conventional" monument little sense, If only because it would require a permanent revision of this monument (at least if concrete numbers and names are noted on the monument, which we did - in whatever form - useful hold).
Basically, the question must be allowed whether the above-cited form of thinking and memorials are long outdated (except Frauenkirchen!) And has had its day. To quote Michael Blumenthal, founding director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, which makes already in 2000 (!) Shows that
today it is no longer enough to do "something", but that it is now something happens to the "AS" is! Otherwise there is all the work for Alibi action to be. The traditional forms of memory have largely become obsolete, they now lead to confusion and contradiction. A reduction of commemoration and remembrance to the "WHAT" will have a commemorative activism result that is still applauded often reflexively, but will definitely have the effect that the memory for many is incomprehensible and splits! It is no longer harmonious, the descendants of the perpetrators do not understand, and the descendants of the victims as well not. must remember the past is not merely mummify, but has them alive and currently receive ...
W. Michael Blumenthal, the dispute over the memory. About the difficult path towards an ethic of Remembrance: The Holocaust and the public, in: Art Projects | Synagogue Stommeln | Kuntprojekte, Ostfildern-Ruit, 2000, 21ff
So how do we avoid that the domestic population has / seen enough memorial after two weeks at the local way of thinking, the tourists can do little with the monument and descendants of victims in Monument see only a superficial handling of personally relevant history of their ancestors ? but most of these "conventional" thinking and memorials interchangeable, Can be set up, where once Jews lived, a maximum of printed local name needs to be changed in any place. And of course it also leads to confusion when a monument is not clear escape the suspicion of an alibi action: developed only to do "something" to change at worst gedenkaktionistische shape and / or political capital.
is comparable to Eisenstadt Hohenems in Vorarlberg, where there is also a Jewish Museum is that in the former Jewish quarter is where there is also a Jewish cemetery are and where a lot of "small" details the history of the Hohenems Jews remember (buildings and street names, stumbling blocks and especially the permanent and living memory at the museum). And where there is also not a "conventional" thinking or memorial are, one is such a well is currently not considered or required.
So there is currently no reason for snap shots, a thinking / Memorial, as required by various sides to implement.
Quite the contrary, it has to go mainly to a permanent living memory work, far from political change and conventional, long disused forms of memory, regardless of official Dos and Bedenkjahren, free from suspicion of tokenism.
A kind Conclusio as well as ideas and approaches for the future
It applies primarily to clarify the many open questions. This is a working process, take the few years that will but make the Jewish Museum with passion and highest meticulousness. This should a permanent and vital Remember be guaranteed. The entire work process is always the support and involvement of Eisenstadt need (from Matrikenamt to financial subsidies, etc.).
One of the next steps is sure to have long planned with the city Eisenstadt panel (with plan and explanations) to install the younger Jewish cemetery (analogous to the board at the older Jewish cemetery). the outstanding issues to be addressed on the board.
Accompanying this work of the museum, the "results" in terms of "should also be consideredStones of remembrance"To make the city visible. This too would be a sign of a permanent, continuous and living memorial and memory work.
But since of course the displaced should be considered would be to consider whether to individual houses and squares, or possibly with a central memorial plaque, plaques with the names, occupations, etc. of there earlier resident Jews could be applied in the future. It must be able to be given to the question of why there are no Jews in Eisenstadt today and what happened to them in any case clear, accurate and understandable answers.
There are already exemplary projects that deserve the highest respect: students of the high school short meadow in Eisenstadt developed in the overall / bedenkjahr 2018 'The traveling memorial - a project against oblivion„. Living, personal and concrete examination of the history of the Jewish students, the Holocaust. The ORF report begins with the sentence "In Eisenstadt there is still no memorial to victims of the Shoah." Gives me, especially in the specific context of the question. Had teachers, students still developed this beautiful project, if there were such a monument in Eisenstadt? "Must" to teachers, pupils in Frauenkirchen, Kobersdorf, German Kreutz and Mattersburg not as intense with the history of Jewish students deal, because there is already a monument in the village?
Of course, "closes", our museum is not a Holocaust Memorial a priori. So that an idea for a really deliberate, sensitive-made, artistic quality and not arbitrary "replaceable" monument could put a thought process for a design in motion Will be for us always to imagine (assuming it agree the above parameters. To say that there the "wording" begins "Shoah memorial" and not "Holocaust memorial" that this monument of expelled and murdered Jews of Eisenstadt intends, but just that we do not have a monument to Jews, Sinti, Roma serious numbers and names ...) ,
but the living and permanent memorial and commemorative work can already replace a monument.
With a review of the overall / bedenkjahr 2018 and an outlook we wish all our readers a happy Hanukkah Happy Hanukkah - חג אורים שמח and now our Christian ...
With a review of the overall / bedenkjahr a happy Hanukkah 2018 and an outlook we wish all readers
Happy Chanukka - happy hanucah
and now our Christian readers
a Merry Christmas and to all a Happy New Year!
Status quo, many facts, many hypotheses
80 years ago, in November 1938, there was no Jewish communities, no more Jews in Burgenland. In 1938, the final out of centuries of unique European Jewish history and Jewish history meant in our region.
In our Newsletter of February 2018 we announced reproduce their names and especially their history, especially in this anniversary year the Jews of Eisenstadt.
The balance sheet, which we want to draw is mixed.
What is certain is pleasing that we have succeeded, both Jewish cemeteries Eisenstadt, the world-famous older Jewish cemetery and the younger Jewish cemeteryTo digital fully grasp (a total of 1,358 grave stones and 1,375 people) and provided with call numbers and QR codes on site. Everyone in Eisenstadt Buried can thus be safely found immediately.
Especially the younger Jewish cemetery but presented us with unexpected challenges. at the cemetery absent (physically) about 150 grave stonesThey were probably stolen in 1945, only the base are evidence of their former existence.
The younger Jewish cemetery was established in 1875, are on it today 287 Grave stones.
The death books of Eisenstadt have for the period November 1874 (the last burial at the cemetery older took place on October 28, 1874 instead) until 1938, however, 801 entries on.
Just 126 grave stones or people at younger cemetery can be assigned during this period Matrikeneinträgen! The other grave stones (of 287) are mass graves, after 1945 Buried or Jewish / Jews who died in other places and were transferred to Eisenstadt, are certainly not registered in the death register Eisenstadt.
At the younger Jewish cemetery were to 1938 or about 430 grave stones (About 150 and 280 existing today missing, the first series of 7 grave stone was applied to 1945).
we assume that the missing 150 grave stones were Jews who are registered in the death register Eisenstadt (801 entries of Jews who may be buried in Eisenstadt and 126 grave stones we can assign these entries) missing about 525 grave stones. Were among the missing demonstrably 150 grave stones are those of Jews who were transferred, etc., and not registered in the death register, absence - theoretically - at least 525, in the worst case but 675 grave stones.
But as de facto the younger Jewish cemetery certainly not 525 still missing 675 grave stones, is unfortunately much uncertainty where these people were buried for us. In the death books of Eisenstadt is no reference to the burial, funeral books are missing entirely.
Since we neither know how many Jews / Jews were actually buried by the 801 entries in the death books of the Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt, nor how many Jews / Jews the 801 Matrikeneinträgen can be assigned from 150 physically missing grave stones, many remain uncertainties.
It is sad that we do not know of at least 525 Jews from Eisenstadt, where they are buried, do not know their history.
Much remains to be done ... commemorative year 2018ff.
Unfortunately, we can not submit or latkes for Hanukkah donuts online, but have in time for the three new Matrikenindizes of Schlaining / Oberwartput online: