Koschere Melange

The blog of the Austrian Jewish Museum - ISSN 2410-6380

Keyword: pesach

About Jewish and Christian Fleischhauer in Eisenstadt

John Rylands Haggadah, Spain, 14th century, Schächtszene This Friday, March 30 (= 14 Nisan), Erev Pesach. We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5778! חג פסח כשר ושמח! ...

John Rylands Haggadah, Spain, 14th century, Schächtszene

This Friday, March 30 (= 14 Nisan), Erev Pesach.

We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5778!

Happy and Kosher Passover!

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!

As is well known to the Pesach Kaschrutregeln must be followed especially closely, this time interested in the Jewish and Christian (!) Butcher who supplied kosher meat to the Jewish community. Although not intended, almost like a kind of genre picture of a trade from 1716 to 1828 arose.

Obviously, there have been incidents in the first decades of the newly established Jewish community Eisenstadt repeated problems with the Jewish butchers.
So had the December 27, 1716 even the rabbi judge delegate because of breach of contract increase the price of meat by the butcher Rafael was Jakob Pollak, Because the community had filed a complaint against Mr. Pollak,

that he had sold to Jews 2.5 years through more expensive [than Christians], and that every pound of half a Hungarian penny.

Mr. Pollak course, denied the charge, because he was not been aware of having sold the meat more expensive. It was decided that in the present case an unknown robbing people present, which one can not defer the spoil. Therefore, this would be - now it's called well Diversion - only through the promotion of a public work to make up. Rafael Pollak had to fix up at his own expense a moat around the cemetery, which is necessary so that the cascading waters from the mountains do not penetrate into the graves ...

Am February 6, 1724 was against the Fleischhauer Wolf ben Meir (= Wolff Marcus, Sheep and goat Fleischhauer) under investigation for the offense in the exercise of his profession:

The accused was earlier in suspicion not sold ritually prepared wine of Jews to have. Well ... was [known] that he was looking for meat that had not been investigated properly in terms of palatability to sell. Likewise, it turned out that he brought meat that came from a slaughtered more than three days animals for sale without having previously subjected to the prescribed wash. He had this to evade excise duty, made it into the house of a Gentile and still left unsealed so.

The penalty is: inability to witness and taking an oath, withdrawing active and passive suffrage, etc., this was still a hefty penance and his seat in the synagogue lost the suspect for a whole year.

Wolff Marcus should not have been zartbesaiteter man, for the October 11th the same year was

sentenced the defendant, who is known as a violent man, ... to a fine of 39 pennies for pain and suffering and as a substitute for medical costs .... It may also not be called to the Torah or honored with a synagogue function for a period of three months. he may be called in at any municipal assembly for a period of five years ...

And less than a month later, on 05. November 1724complained Israel Modern against Fleischhauer Abraham Zoref and Simeon ben Chanan property damage.

The defendants have thrown on the previous Simchat-Torafeste with stones around, so the windows were broken in the house of the plaintiff. The verdict was: Abraham Zoref has to pay three pounds of tallow candles to the synagogue as punishment. For a period of three months exclusion of any synagogue function, further withdrawal of active and passive suffrage for six years ...

Am December 28, 1730 was the municipality employees Bendit ben Abraham accused

treats the parties to favor one good one to have sold the other lean and bad meat.

And on January 2, 1808 made the stately Fleischhauer Moses Kittsee-Wolf and Moses Samuel contained in a board meeting of the community,

that they would have to work as a result of extremely rising price of slaughter cattle with great loss and therefore would not be able to provide the community with kosher meat. In consideration of these reasons nor the levying of half a cruiser them is granted per pound on the already contractually guaranteed 150 fl.. This applies a date until after Pesach. For the Pesachfeiertage even the current agreement is not valid.

Vogelkopf-Haggada, Süddeutschland, spätes 13. Jahrhundert, Schächtszene

Bird's head Haggadah, Southern Germany, late 13th century, Schächtszene

(More about the bird's head-Haggda in: Pictures of the Week - The bird's head Haggadah)

In any case, led - perhaps - the recurring problems with the Jewish butchers the community Eisenstadt to the fact that the

March 15, 1821

a contract between the Jewish community and the Christian Fleischhauer masters Sebastian Schwemmer and Johann Hackstock for supplying the community with kosher meat has been closed.

The agreement was read to all parishioners on schedule and considerably and no one had taken the slightest objection to it and decency and everything found to be very good and for the benefit of the community ...

So the Jewish community is committed to obtain the utter need for kosher meat, which is used in the alleys at obbenannte Mr. Schwemmer and chopping block alone by them.

The contract was valid between 6 April 1821 and 6 April 1827 and governed all obligations of both parties meticulous. Anyway, highly remarkable, as usually, the Jewish butcher supplied their Christian neighbors, but rarely reversed.

So both men above connect further that they can provide the community with good beef perfectly well and have that everything Rindviehe required both for stately Hofbank, as well as the entire demand, which same on the villages never need may be beaten, but all use ... must be geschachtet by the local Beglaubte ...

Interestingly, two years later, in 1823, fl in a contract for the provision of a loan from the 260th to Moses Ahron Weiler as a contractor of the Jewish community Mr. Abraham Hirsch [Schwarz] (From Rechnitz, Fleischhauer in Eisenstadt) is mentioned!

Since the two Christian Fleischhauer the Jewish community, as we learn from the contract, even exclusively supplied, Mr. Black may not have been officially Servant as a butcher.

... the two gentlemen have [Christian] to use Fleischhacker master every week for the installed supplied meat to the bank's servant because of their payment, otherwise the community for the payment to the above Mr. liable nothing.

The municipal Fleischhauer Abraham Hirsch Black was in fact only just October 19, 1828 ordered, namely by 6 fl. wages weekly.

Moritz SchwarzThe son of Abraham Hirsch Black is on January 03, 1833 the first entry in the Geburtsmatriken the Jewish community Eisenstadt. The profession of the father is also indicated therein as "Bank servant".

Matriken Geburt Moritz Schwarz, 03. Jänner 1833, Eisenstadt

Parish registers birth Moritz Schwarz, January 03, 1833, Eisenstadt

We are not told why the Jewish community business with the kosher meat again entrusted after the contract expires with the Christian butchers Jewish butchers.

But we know that only a few months later, on January 5, 1828, A supervisory body in the municipality meat market to protect the buyer against overreaching by the butcher had to be ordered ...

No Comments About to Jewish and Christian Fleischhauer in Eisenstadt

Pesach 5774

Hardly a motif in a Pesach Haggadah may be regionally or more original locates as storks in a Haggadah from the Bohemian-Moravian-Hungarian space, by the way, the home of most of the ...

Hardly a motif in a Pesach Haggadah may be regionally or more original locates as storks in a Haggadah from the Bohemian-Moravian-Hungarian space which, incidentally, was the home of most of the writers and illuminators of the 18th century. Perhaps the Haggadah comes even from the area around Lake Neusiedl.

Abraham und die 3 Engel in Mamre, Pesach Haggada 1737

Storks are from our region, Burgenland, not indispensable, every child knows this country that annually recurring beautiful spectacle: In spring, the storks return from the South back into the Burgenland to build here on the chimneys their nests to have a baby, on the tease summer months and strike out south again in the fall.

Approximately 30-40 days after the eggs are laid, they hatch. This year, incidentally, was the first stork few days ago, on 26th of March, To Burgenland, the selection of the image for this year's our Pesachwünsche done so not by chance ;-)

Of course, the beautiful birds seem to have become not only recently become a kind symbol of our region. Already in 1737, the year of our Pesach Haggadah, we find them - almost in Burgenland local color - on the chimney of Abraham's house. The biblical motif of Illustration underlying we already know: Abraham and the three angels in Mamre, An illustration of an anthem in the Pesach Haggadah, which is read at the home Pesach- / Seder on the second Pesachabend afterwards.

An interesting detail we find on the front page of the Pesach Haggadah:

Titelseite Pesach Haggada 1737

Between Moses and Aaron, we read:

Pesach Haggadah, with beautiful illustrations, all handwritten on parchment with the capitals of Amsterdam, in the year 497 after the small era (= 1737)

Late 16th century, many were MarranenSo forcibly converted to Christianity Iberian Jews who confessed early 17th century open again to Judaism, settled in Amsterdam. Their keen interest in Hebrew literature meant that 1626 Menasseh Ben Israel founded in Amsterdam, a Hebrew printing press, in which not only a lot of Hebrew and Latin books were printed, but in the new fonts were cut. The outstanding quality of these "Amsterdam letters" later made many foreign writers - not quite truthfully - attach the note on their front pages "with the letter of Amsterdam".

But now here is not - as usual - "Amsterdam" with Hebrew letters (Amsterdam), Sondern "Amstelredam" (! Amstlrdm), So the name of the fishing village that had arisen at one erected in the 13th century dam with sluice in the river Amstel.
we do not know, we might read "Amstlerdam" ...

Erev Pesach is always on 14 Nisan, which this year is Monday, April 14th.

We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5774!

Happy and Kosher Passover!

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!

1 comment to Pesach 5774

Matzesbälle soup from the Burgenland

For Passover 5773 This time we have come up with something special for our Pesachbeitrag. Our dear friend from the United States - with roots in Burgenland - Carole Bird, by the way (like ...

For Passover 5773

This time we have come up with something special for our Pesachbeitrag.

Our dear friend from the United States - with roots in Burgenland - Carole Vogel, who (can hear how at the beginning of the video also) by the way their ancestry to MaHaRaM ASCH can return, led with her husband directed.
Because we can now imagine a recipe for matzo balls soup, which comes from the former seven municipalities in Burgenland (!) Is and traditionally prepared in her family to this day.

In the video you can see Carole's nieces and daughter Rachel, Sarah and Emily, and at the very end baby Clara! :-)

The video was shot a week ago in New Jersey and we thank Carole, her husband and of course especially with the young ladies very much for the great deal of trouble and really great performance!
Many thanks to Carole, her husband, and especially to the three young ladies for all their efforts and their truly magnificent (cooking) performance!

Both Carole as we find it great and especially important that traditions are not just reserved for the older generation, but are often also maintained by the young generation!

By the way, pay attention to the professional video quality, no doubt almost boiling broadcast technology!

And of course, here's the recipe in German:

  • 4 large eggs
  • 2 tablespoons by melting purified chicken fat
  • 1/2 teaspoon powdered ginger
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda (This is not a family tradition, I have to ordained to make really fluffy matzo balls. While omit Pesach!)
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 cup Matzesmehl
  • chicken soup
  • fresh dill
  1. Add the eggs into a small mixing bowl, and mix ginger and salt and then add to the fat and baking powder.
    Gradually, the matzo flour add. When all the ingredients are well mixed, close the container and place in the refrigerator for about 30 minutes.
  2. After 25 minutes, fill a large pot 3/4 full with water and heat.
  3. Form small balls so that after 30 minutes of cooling the mass Matze. Each ball should be approximately 2:50 cm in diameter. The hands are very sticky it. Place the shaped balls on a large plate. gradually inserting the finished balls in the boiling salt water with a teaspoon.
  4. Pot cover, back off heat and leave for 40 minutes. Do not remove the cover before the time is up. If the pot boils over, turn the heat down.
  5. Approximately 10 minutes before commencing the cooking time is up, heat the chicken soup in a separate pot. Meanwhile, chop a few sprigs of fresh dill.
    Half a teaspoon (or more if you like dill) fill in the soup plate.
  6. Dispense 3 finished matzo balls in the soup plates and top with the chicken soup. Season with salt and pepper.

Good Appetite!


We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5773!

Happy and Kosher Passover!

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!

3 comments to matzo balls soup from Burgenland

Pictures of the Week - The Venetian Haggadah

For Passover 5772 In 1609, who was born near Padua Israel a completely redesigned Pesach Haggadah decided ben Daniel Zifroni surrendered. Obviously, even after ...

For Passover 5772

In 1609, who was born near Padua Israel decided ben Daniel Zifroni issue a completely redesigned Pesach Haggadah. Obviously, even after a long career very familiar with appropriate imagery and artistic equipment, there also was no lack of self-confidence Zifroni. Because under the title, he wrote:

The design of each page is a new invention. The full text of the Haggadah is illustrated with scenes from the Bible, all Israel see all the wonderful things and understand that the fathers had not dreamed of.

And put it in terms of his own person:

Boys and girls, old men and young men, praise to issue me the Zifroni, such grandeur the name of the Lord who has led me to.

Well, with all due respect, not as new as he writes, is of course not everything in the Venetian Haggadah. We find several common image interpretations and acquisitions of illustrated image printing, but in fact a considerable number of images was really blowing them away. For example, the architectural framing of each page; each side is framed by two columns supporting a pediment, creating a very monumental impression.

A largely new and very imaginative illustrate, we find on page 15 of the Haggadah:

Venezianische Haggada, 1629, Seite 15

written over the image a heading in German language in Rashi script:

As the women have mirrored themselves with their men.
and be among the Apfelboim they Kumen together.

In the image it is - in principle - to illustrate that text in the Pesach Haggadah, which quotes the prophet Ezekiel and his word as a metaphor for the propagation of the Israelites in Egypt is leading (the Hebrew text under the picture to view it):

numerous - as it is (Ezekiel 16: 7):
Numerous as the plants of the field I have made you, you have increased and you're grown up and you come in the finest jewelery, breasts matured and your hair sprouting - but you were naked and bare.

but the Venetian Haggadah does not show - (. 1560 and 1568) about how the Mantua Haggadah - a naked busty woman with long tangled hair, but 3 Single scenes in an image frame at the upper edge. And that we want to take a closer look:

We begin

Links: Under an apple tree sit a man and a woman looking into a mirror. The inspiration for all three images comes from the rabbinical tradition (see especially Sota 11b; Exodus Rabbah 1,7.12; Tanchuma Pequde 9) reported that the Israelites who had to do forced labor in Egypt, were not allowed to sleep at home to their not attend women and to produce offspring. But the women went to their men on the fields and brought them small fish to eat. After the meal, the women took their mirror and looked into it, together with their husbands. Through the erotic stimulation become pregnant, they returned home. But the birth they went back on the field and also gave birth under the apple tree, as they say in the Song 8.5:

Under the apple tree I awakened you, where your mother received where your woman in labor in labor was.

Mittleres Bild der Illustration

Do not: The middle image (ie before Ezechielzitat so) is directly related to the Haggadah text before it:

Big and strong: as it says in Ex 1.7:
But the children of Israel were fruitful, so that the land teemed with them. They multiplied and became exceedingly strong; They populated the land.

To understand the illustration, we must use the Pentateuchkommentar of Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo ben Jitzchaq, 1040-1105), which refers to the six words that describe this Bible verse fertility of the Israelites:

And teemedShe gave birth to six in ONE womb (ie at a pregnancy).

The presentation of six equal-sized children who gather around the mother, that relates to the interpretation of Rashi. The original image itself should Zifroni of the illustrated Bible of Moses dal Castellazzo, fol. have taken 71:

Bilderbibel des Moses dal Castellazzo, fol. 71

Illustrated Bible. Warsaw, Jewish Historical Institute, Codex 1164. Northern Italy, copy of a woodcut series of Moses dal Castellazzo (ca. 1520) from the second half of the 16th century.
Fol. 71: proliferation of the Israelites in Egypt: Every mother has six children (see above).

Rechtes Bild der Illustration

The Egyptians wanted to kill the newborn Israelite children, but the earth swallowed protective. but afterwards they came back like plants from the earth. Therefore, the flowers can be found in the illustration of children!

This third far right is again based on the cited prophecy of Ezekiel 16.7:

"Numerous as the plants of the field I have made you ..."

Annotation: Only the accuracy sake briefly noted here that the above description does not the pressure (the Venetian Haggadah) 1609 (Bodleian Library in Oxford, Ms. Opp. Add. Fol. III, 468), but the facsimile edition for printing 1629 Bnei Brak in 1975, used with an introduction by Bezalel Narkiss. In the edition of 1609 discussed Illustration would be on page 14 to find.
The two editions differ marginally, u.a. in pagination by one page. In two editions but is noted on the front page that this is a "new invention on every single page is and that the text was illustrated accordingly."


  • Kurt Schubert, in: Klaus Lohrmann (Hg.), 1000's Austrian Jewry, exhibition catalog, Eisenstadt 1982, 326 (No. 73)
  • Schubert U., Images of the Bible in Judaism, Graz o.J.
  • Schubert U., Jewish Book Art I, Graz 1983
  • Schubert U., Jewish Arts II, Graz 1992


We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5772!

Happy and Kosher Passover

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!

1 comment to Pictures of the Week - The Venetian Haggadah


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