Bedenken und Bekennen der christlichen Kirchen zum Gedenkjahr 1938 – 2018 Ende Oktober / Anfang November 1938 meldete die Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien, dass es im Burgenland keine jüdischen Gemeinden, keine…
Bedenken und Bekennen der christlichen Kirchen zum Gedenkjahr 1938 – 2018
Ende Oktober / Anfang November 1938 meldete die Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien, dass es im Burgenland keine jüdischen Gemeinden, keine Juden mehr gibt.
Die burgenländischen Juden hatten den sogenannten Anschluss Österreichs im März 1938 schneller und brutaler zu spüren bekommen als die Juden in den anderen Bundesländern. Buchstäblich über Nacht waren sie ausgewiesen und vertrieben worden.
Fast auf den Tag genau nach 80 Jahren fand am Dienstag, 30. Oktober 2018 um 17 Uhr in der Synagoge in unserem Museum die Be- und Gedenkveranstaltung der christlichen Kirchen zum Gedenkjahr 1938 – 2018 statt.
Im allerkleinsten Kreis beteten und sprachen Diözesanbischof Dr. Ägidius Zsifkovics, Superintendent Mag. Manfred Koch und Oberrabbiner Arie Folger, MBA. Kantor Rami Langer sang u.a. „El Male Rachamim“.
Sowohl Bischof Zsifkovics als auch Superintendent Koch formulierten in ihren Ansprachen deutlich ihre Betroffenheit sowohl über das „unaussprechliche Leid so vieler Menschen, aber auch Betroffenheit darüber, dass unsere christlichen Kirchen und ihre Mitglieder so viel schuldig geblieben sind. Von wenigen Ausnahmen abgesehen, haben katholische wie evangelische Christen sowohl in Österreich, auch im Burgenland, … zum Schicksal der Juden weithin geschwiegen, obwohl sie geahnt, wenn nicht sogar gewusst haben, was mit ihren Mitmenschen geschieht…“
Oberrabbiner Folger betonte, dass er gerne zu dieser Gedenkveranstaltung gekommen ist, vor allem auch, weil dadurch die seit geraumer Zeit stattfindenden internationalen Bemühungen auf lokaler Ebene zum Ausdruck gebracht und realisiert werden können. Die kleine jüdische Gemeinde in Österreich, so Folger, braucht Partner ‒ wie die Kirchen oder unser Museum ‒, die gegen Judenfeindlichkeit und Antisemitismus auftreten.
Danach überreichten Bischof und Superintendent dem Herrn Oberrabbiner einen ökumenischen Hirtenbrief aus Anlass der Novemberpogrome vor 80 Jahren:
Diözesanbischof Ägidius Zsifkovics und Superintendent Manfred Koch überreichen Oberrabbiner Arie Folger den ökumenischen Hirtenbrief
Gegen ein Schweigen, das zum Himmel schreit.
Wenn Christen von sich sagen dürfen, Mitarbeiter im Reich Gottes zu sein, so heißt das nicht, eine Auswahl zu treffen, wer sonst noch dazu gehört und wer nicht.
Der Hirtenbrief umfasst sechs Seiten, am Schluss die dringende Empfehlung:
Dieser Ökumenische Hirtenbrief möge am 10. oder 11. November 2018 in allen katholischen und evangelischen Pfarren des Burgenlandes zur Gänze oder in Auszügen verlesen werden.
Just in time for Rosh Hashanah 5779, the birth, marriage and Sterbematriken of Eisenstadt are (currently Geburtsmatriken of data protection only until 1918) went from 1895 to 1938 online.
It is - as especially in this anniversary year - too much theory and generally about Jews, the spoken "Connection" and the Holocaust. The result is produced not only by empty words arbitrariness, but the Shoah threatens often well aware intended, thereby losing their singularity.
Indexes are not only a tremendous help for all genealogically interested and simply one of the indispensable necessities of an efficient and serious historical analysis of the history of the Jews, but the indices to write means above all - much of our work on the Jewish cemeteries - the Jews much more they reproduce their names and beyond their story.
Even when writing the Eisenstadt Matrikenindizes we were confronted with stories that often go to the substance:
On June 11, 1938 at a time when the Nazis had long since begun to evacuate the Jews from Eisenstadt and other Jewish communities of today's Burgenland, committed an unemployed shoemaker's assistant Samuel (Schmuli) Gellis 54 years suicide, he hanged himself.
His slightly older sister Therese married in 1904 Bernhard Simon. The couple had three children. Therese Simon was transported on 06 February 1942 to Riga murdered in the Shoah. Her husband Bernhard Simon was transported on 23 October 1941 in the Lodz ghetto and also murdered.
What happened to the older sister of Samuel Gelli, Gisela, and his younger sister Pauline and whether they survived the Shoah, we unfortunately do not know.
Just in time for Rosh haShana 5779 we could publish the indices for the birth-, marriage- and death records of Eisenstadt 1895 – 1938.
There is – especially in the commemorative year – often too theoretical talk about the Jews, the „Anschluss“ and the Holocaust. As a result the Shoa is threatened to lose its singularity.
Indices are not only a tremendous help to anyone interested in genealogy, but writing indices is – similar to our work on the Jewish Cemeteries – above all about giving back jews their names and their history.
Even when writing the Eisenstadt indices, we were confronted with touching stories.
On June 11, 1938, at a time when the Nazis had long begun to deport the Jews from Eisenstadt and all other Jewish Communities of today's Burgenland, the unemployed shoemaker's assistant Samuel (Schmuli) Gellis committed suicide.
His slightly older sister Therese married Bernhard Simon in 1904. The couple had three children. Both Therese and Bernhard Simon were murdered in the Shoa.
Unfortunately we don't know, what happened to the older sister of Samuel Gellis, Gisela, and his younger sister Pauline, and whether they survived the Shoa.
A very big thank you to the Eisenstadt, their mayor Mag. Thomas Steiner and especially to Josef Kornfeld and his two employees and Thomas Bernhard from the municipal building yard Eisenstadt, ...
A very big thank you to the Eisenstadt, their mayor Mag Thomas Steiner and especially to Josef Kornfeld and his two employees and Thomas Bernhard from the municipal building yard Eisenstadt to us today -. A again - and have helped tremendously in over 30 degree heat!
In the course of digital acquisition of the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt 2017 showed that almost a third of the grave stones were toppled and often broken. Half of which had sunk into the ground or lay, often in several parts, even in other places in the cemetery. Many of the Hebrew grave inscriptions were no longer legible, many of the grave stones were sunk shortly completely in the ground and have been virtually untraceable.
It was to save order of the day, in fact, what can still be saved: After detection and classification of the grave stones, the stones had now established, be returned to their original locations and at least positioned so that the inscriptions are legible and the grave stones not damaged further.
Since most grave stones weighing several hundred kilos, of course, was not to think about a job on their own initiative. And it may be repeated: We still do not find it for granted and are really happy that the Eisenstadt does this so valuable contribution to the restoration of the cemetery, a work the way that goes far beyond all closed contracts and obligations!
(The Green Monster vehicle that I call down "heavy equipment", incidentally, is called "Telescopic handlers" as I learned today).
Not least because it is also in this work one of the most important mitzvot, the "Kavod Hamet", respect and protect the dignity of the dead.
Work on the younger Jewish cemetery is, however, continues: Some stones have yet to be established, because the space for the large telescopic loader was too tight now and we are working hard on in the creation of QR codes for each grave stone as well as permanent additions and corrections the digital version. We will keep you posted ...
Where the people were who settled in Eisenstadt and died here?
the crucial question was:
What happened to the spouses, siblings, children and grandchildren of those Jews who are buried in the cemetery? Could they escape in time and survive or their path led to Auschwitz and death?
What we know so far and sad fact is: There are so many family members especially second and third generation of buried on the Jewish cemeteries Eisenstadt Jews who did not survive the Holocaust. Many of them were no longer alive before their deportation in Eisenstadt and are therefore not counted in the databases of the Burgenland victims of the Shoah.
The Austrian Jewish Museum is dedicated to one of its primary tasks is to look beyond the "regional focus" to document the history of the Jewish families of Eisenstadt as seamlessly as possible. Only the first of the two letters present let us grudge four Shoah victims.
The following are the two letters of the summer of 1945 and March 1946th
Deeply moving in the letters are the grief and pain of those family members and friends who did not survive the Holocaust,
the great and agonizing uncertainty, who could have perhaps survived by the relatives and friends that terrible time, and - clearly visible especially in the handwritten comment in the first letter - to have often experienced very late the great joy that individual family members and friends but could survive and were safe.
But the uncertainty has often been a certainty (if also in this case Sandor Wolf they not seen): So was about his niece Grete Back (See below), of which he had not heard for so long, was murdered in Auschwitz.
Haifa, Summer 1945. The last (we know) Letter from Sandor WolfWho dies on January 2 1946th addressee are Irma and Emilio floor in Trieste. Irma, daughter of Eisenstadt leather dealer Leopold HirschlerHad in 1903, married in Baden near Vienna Manó Emil floor, the brother of the founder of Stock Spirits empire Lionello Stock and moved with her husband to Trieste.
Emilio floor died in 1951, Irma floor, b Hirschler, 1972. With them buried in the Jewish cemetery in Trieste also son Guido, Born 1904 in Spalato / Split, d. 1992 in Kitzbühel.
The deep and respectful friendship between Sandor Wolf and family Hirschler / floor had its roots in the ancient and beloved home, in Eisenstadt. an "Heimatliebe that you (probably not only) Sandor Wolf had ausgebläut"As we read in the letter. And it can only be clearly repeated: No, Sandor Wolf had no intention to Eisenstadt return (as is often claimed, about here). It would have been desirable to him that he would bring his art collection to Haifa can. The unworthy and unholy spectacle of Burgenland and especially the Press in the late 1950s have neither Sandor Wolf yet earned his collection.
Irma and Emilio floor, Via [...], Trieste
Dear friends stick!
At last you have returned there again in your beautiful home, from which they were expelled by the fiends and were forced to begin the migration, you have many years of much concern and trouble caused by you but with God's help and grace healthy love with your kids and are unharmed come! Accept our sincere congratulations to you and the families of your dear sons.
How I would like to know the history of your hike. How did you then come from Trieste to Spalato, and how you then from Yugoslavia, as it has become a source of fire, where so many Jews were killed, are healing come out to Switzerland! That was quite a feat because of the cauldron, the Balkans and Italy to enter the peaceful Switzerland, where your dear sons were certainly the mentors!
Now I am to learn also curious to see how the future of your things will be as they still are in Istria and Dalmatia, located provisionally in the Yugoslav sphere of influence!
Unfortunately I have less related worries. My wine shops in Austria, but based on an activity in the trade are not restored. A through 150 years of service large become company, which is based on supply of wine, which was still far drunk, on a device of barrels that were probably already burned to customers who died or (wines, Ed. Note. D. ) are corrupt. And when they were passed, want to know nothing of Jews. Personnel who is Jewish, now scattered for the most part in all parts of the world is not to reconstruct the less, because neither I nor my nephew Hans WolfServing in the English military - but is demobilized in the coming weeks - want to return to Austria; or only where our little money goes at the moment to end; and we practice to return not transferable from Austria and Hungary assets. But that happened with a feeling of great pain, because you ausgebläut us the love of countryAnd we now have our new - have come to love old country. I have made Vienna the news that our business house in the XI. Simmering district is, however, that my nieces and my private home was bombed in the Wollzeile. From Eisenstadt I have - as it is occupied by the Russians - no message. However, Dr. Ignaz Friedman, who has remained with his immediate family alive, let tell me that my museum is only slightly damaged. Is that true, I might have hoped at least hierherzubekommen parts of it, which of course also requires the courtesy of Austria and the Russians!
But our family and our friends have suffered through the Nazi atrocities. Budapest is my niece Pink Schmidek born, Schleiffer (Daughter of Sandor Wolf's sister Ernestine, N. D. been WBB), and her husband and her grandson, Andris Ney murdered. although they got from me Palestinian certificates sent in June 1943rd Our cousins in Budapest, Gyor and Szombathely are murdered in Pest, had been deported from the province to Auschwitz entire families. Grete Back, born Brown - my niece (daughter of Sandor Wolf's sister Flora, N. D. Ed.) -., (To Lodz Lodz ghetto, editor's note) was author deported and for some years we hear no more of her -.. Which means only hopelessness.
Nearly the heaviest blow for me is the deportation of my most intimate friend Dr. Sandor Schwarz from Sopron, who along with his secretary, Irene Breiner - (a Schönberger daughter from Eisenstadt, niece of Zsiga SchoenbergerSigmund Schoenberger, Son of Samuel and brother of Berthold Schoenberger, Anm. d. Verf.), nach Auschwitz deportiert wurde. Ihr Onkel Zsiga Schönberger, ist mit Frau und 90-jähriger Schwiegermutter von Nizza, wohin sie aus Fiume wanderten, nach Polen geschickt worden und [sie alle] werden leider Gottes nicht mehr zurückkehren. Schönbergers waren bei einer französischen Familie gut versteckt, aber er beging den Fehler, dass er Briefe aus seiner früheren Wohnung holen wollte und dabei erwischt und samt seinen Damen dann verschickt wurde. Über Dr. Schwarz sind Gerüchte da, aus Amerika, dass ihn jemand in Deutschland in einem Lager gesprochen hätte; aber wie könnte es sein, dass man von ihm sonst gar kein Lebenszeichen bekommen hat. Dabei hatte er als mein Generalbevollmächtigter angeblich unser großes Weingut in Debrecen verkauft. Ich weiß nicht an wen, und auch nicht wohin das Geld gekommen ist. Hier sind wir alle gesund, ich wurde vor 2 Jahren zweimal operiert, es ist aber gut ausgegangen. Aber unsere geliebte Nichte, Ing. Käthe Böhm, ist im Jahre 1942 an einer schweren Gelbsucht infektiöser Natur gestorben. Sie war nie im Leben krank! Nun hoffe ich auch von Ihnen allen einen Bericht zu bekommen und werde mich freuen nur Günstiges zu hören. Wie geht es Ihren lieben Töchtern? Wo sind Sie? Ich glaube Ihre Ältere ist in Südamerika. Wie sind Ihre lieben Enkelkinder herangewachsen? Bitte grüßen Sie mir Ihre Söhne, Schwiegertöchter und seien Sie selbst innigst gegrüßt von Ihrem getreuen in alter Freundschaft
Under the letter a handwritten addition of the sister of Sandor Wolf, Frieda Löwy-Wolf:
My dearest wife Irma!
It was a great joy for me when I heard that you are saved with your dear children. What are my dear friends Guido and Mario (Sons of Irma and Emilio floor, n. D. Ed.), Their wives and children? I ask for very detailed report. It greets your dear husband and your children. It kisses your
1908 visited Irma floor, b Hirschel, obviously with some relatives from Trieste, her parents in Eisenstadt.
Family Hirschel front of her house in the Upper Alley in Jewish Quarter Eisenstadt
Dr. Mario Stock, Son of Irma floor, President of the Jewish community of Trieste born, . 1906 in Spalato / Split, died in 1989 in Trieste, 1979 describes the photo in Italian, here is the translation:
The photograph shows my grandparents Leopold and Charlotte Hirschel in 1908 outside her home, which still exists today. At the windows to four daughters, one of which my mother's show. On the road, son Sami and three nephews, among them Oscar, lieutenant at the age of 18 in June 1918 during the attack Asiagio perished, and Ottilie, (now) 80 years old and still alive.
Annotation: Ottilie plumbers, Born 01 September 1894 in Graz, d. January 21, 1989 in Trieste, daughter of Berta and Wilhelm Hirschel plumbers, is the niece of Irma floor, b Hirschel (Irma and Bertha Hirschel are the daughters of Leopold Hirschel and Charlotte Tachauer).
Haifa March 1946thFrieda Löwy-Wolf, The sister of Sandor Wolf, the family Stock informed about the death of her brother:
Haifa, March 3, 1946 home Wintry, Haifa, Israel
Dearest friend, dearest wife Irma, dear family floor!
With a heavy heart I decided to write to you. My beloved brother Sandor Wolf has left us on January 2 forever. It was a week sick and unfortunately, the art of the physicians could not get him alive. You knew him and understood grief for this truly good people mean, the whole family and all friends. How could he have been pleased with your letters. We are desperately waiting for news from you and now this beautiful came with good news too late. that received his collection in Eisenstadt intact and the message now was late a few days. He had a beautiful, rich life and he enjoyed it fully in his own way. Not even the Nazis could spoil his beautiful faith in God and the people. You can imagine how lonely and I left me without the beloved brother feel. To your siblings, dear Mrs. Irma, I grieve with you. Where does Willi? We met him last in London.
To your grandchildren I want you just sincerely congratulate and ask each of my young friends intimately greet today. Mr. Engineer Stock I apologize that I write German, but currently my head and mind is to grieve, to reflect my thoughts in another language. I greet you all dearly and am old friendship
I would like on behalf of the old woman Reiner, who has celebrated her 80th birthday Sandor society with us, to her niece, Mrs. Otti floor, ask me.
Annotation: Marie Reiner born, plumbers, Daughter of Ignaz Isak plumbers and Sali Joachim, is the sister of William plumbers, father of Ottilie Stock, Born Plumbers. Marie plumbers married Samuel Reiner (from German Kreutz) in Eisenstadt on 29 November 1885th
Thanks to my colleague Sonja Apfler for the great Fund (the letters) in the depths of our archives! :-)