opening: Galit Ronen, Deputy Chief of Mission, Embassy of Israel.
Introductory words: Prof. Dr. Amnon Shalit
Kosher buffet and film screening
They dreamed of a better world with Community principles. All members should share with each other what they consume. More than 100 years young Jews founded in Israel today, full of idealism, the first kibbutzim. Even today, some 120,000 people live in Israel in more than 270 kibbutzim. But the social and economic changes of the past 100 years have left their mark also in this form of coexistence.
The exhibition runs from 03 November 2014 to March 15, 2015
From my memoirs 21 years ago, probably the strangest war began here in the History of Israel: the Gulf War. This called Gulf War in the West, called the war in ...
From my memoirs
21 years ago, probably the strangest war began here in the History of Israel: the Gulf War. This, in the West Gulf War called, refers to the war in the Middle East, which began in 1990 with the invasion of Iraq in Kuwait and was ended by a US-led coalition 1,991th On December 24, 1990, the Iraqi president threatened Saddam HusseinThat Israel would be the first target of an attack, the Koalitionsstreitkäfte should attack. As far as I can remember, it was expected here in Israel that he could shoot missiles with poison gas here. Saddam Hussein played here certainly deliberately psychologically with the Jewish trauma from poison gas. His threats were taken seriously; after all, he had already used poison gas in the past against Iran and against the Kurds.
The US stationed thereupon PatriotRockets (against rocket attacks) in Israel and other vulnerable allied countries.
War preparations in Israel
In light of these threats, the Israeli government had to decide how they should behave. There was considerable debate about retaliation for any attacks. The Charedim (Ultra-Orthodox) were clearly against it.
can make the goyim and only not interfere as it is, God will fight for you, and ye shall sit still '
rumored it from circles of haredi rabbis, including from the politically influential Raw chess from Bnei Brak-. The government joined this line, especially because Americans Israel had very asked only nothing to do: an Israeli response would have made only the already very fragile coalition of the United States with Egypt and Saudi Arabia to naught.
Army and Defense Ministry were now operating on measures to protect the civilian population, which would indeed time abkriegen military strike. There was not enough shelter for the entire population, and certainly none that were equipped against chemical and biological attacks. Also, there was then no concrete reinforced security room in apartments, as they are built today (and as a consequence of the Gulf War).
It was therefore decided to:
As a personal defense device receives every Israeli citizen, and every tourist, from the state a gas mask. Asthma sufferers and small children receive in addition to a battery-operated air pump, so that they get enough air.
With the mask also each receive a atropine syringe. Atropine is an antidote to nerve gas.
Furthermore, each household is to provide a room which can be sealed in an emergency. It should have so few windows and doors as possible. Any disks to paste with thick plastic sheets for shatter protection. The columns in each room openings must, after in case of attack all those present have gone into the room using a wide adhesive tape (sometimes by the way is such to this day called "war-tape") are sealed - so that no poisonous gas can penetrate. For the same reason, the lower door column is sealed with a rag soaked in bleach cloth. (A beautiful G'rucherl was!)
The distribution of masks with battery-operated air pumps, of which there were initially only a limited number, caused curious debates, as there can be only in Israel it well: politicians of the orthodox party "Agudat Israel" got excited about having a beard no gas masks with air pump would get as asthmatics. This was a blow to the torahtreue Judaism, because religious Jews should be so under any circumstances shave his beard. This is threatened their lives. While some rabbis declared that the bald shave in the case of danger to life not only allowed but even had a religious duty as the chief rabbi of Ra'anana, Raw Jitzchak PerezWho pioneered with its own example and beardless presented to the public, but in wide circles of the Orthodox, such an attitude was extremely unpopular. For my husband Shmuel, such a problem is not revealed because he received an air pump as chronic asthma patients. But fortunately healthy Charedim had to sacrifice their lives not because of the beard wearing, because the state finally gave them also pumps.
The war starts
On 1 Sch'wat (17 January 1991), the day before the Jahrzeittag my late father, whom I never met, the air attack of the US Air Force on Iraq began. Shmuel was in a dilemma: his father's grave to visit at the cemetery in Holon, or not? The decision was eventually taken from him by the course of things.
I still have the triumphant words of Ezer Weizmann in the ears, then Knesset and at the time of the installer of the Israeli Air Force, which this massive air strike apparently impressed enormous: "Iraqis hands will tremble before they dare to attack us!" Well, the hands of the Iraqis will probably have trembled, but that did not stop her from making true their threats a day later.
On the night of the second Sch'wat (January 18) was stormy weather; over Tel-Aviv and surroundings raged a storm. Suddenly, the sirens sounded. Up and down, up and down. Then it crashed, at some distance, but still clearly audible. From the radio drowned out the voice of the legendary afterwards spokesman for the Israel Defense Forces, Nachman Schai:
Is it a rocket or is it thunder? Meanwhile, please go to sealed 'rooms and put on gas masks, until the matter is resolved. Stay calm and drink water!
Meanwhile clapped heavy raindrops on the roof.
I was absolutely sure that it was not thunder. Thus, no thunder sounds! So we rushed the kids to the "sealed" bedroom. My heart began to race; followed shortness of breath, dizziness and sweating. That was a poison gas missile, these are the signs of nerve gas poisoning !!! Or maybe not? Maybe just a rush of adrenaline with all the known side effects? "You have to check if the pupils are constricted!"It went through my head. But wait, maybe they are the in excitement too? While shot me all through my head, I put my gas mask and lashed her. And of course I had to take the glasses, without which I, as a strong short-sighted person, do not see much, and certainly not contracted pupils of her husband and children.
The author with a gas mask next to the "tent" for the baby. The gray areas are the filter and the round hole on the front of a plastic sleeve inside was fastened with gloves, so you can feed the baby.
Image: The two eldest daughters of the author. The Great, Tamar, here, has a gas mask on to which the filter is not yet screwed. They, too, would like her younger sister should get a hood. However, there was not then enough of these and so had to be content 5 year old it a gas mask for children to take.
According to the instructions everyone who was capable should first create the mask itself, and only then the children or helpless. So after put me that thing (quick test:? Everything closely Yes), I pushed our then 4 months old son Motti (= Mordechai, named after my aforementioned father) in his tent, then put the soon 5- Tami year their gas mask and finally the 2 ½-year-old Dina their specially designed for children hood with battery-powered air supply. Example of such a hood, Finished.
As my eyes fell on Shmuel. Who was sitting upright in bed and socks dressed cumbersome. "What are you doing?!"I exclaimed in horror. "Why do not you set the gas mask on ?!" He gave me a confused look and muttered something like: "I've heard that the gas can also penetrate through the ears into the body." This answer - I must confess - has me very amused even in this situation and something solved the unbearable tension. What we all later laughed about it! Then Shmuel finally put on his mask.
We had become glued shut the front door to the bedroom with plastic sheeting and wide tapes. Dina asked with interest, why we do the "Stuck door in a plastic bag"And fantasized about a "gas-soother." So she probably meant the gas masks. For I had told her that inside a drinking tube located in the mask, something "like a pacifier." She herself was, as already mentioned, a gas hood. she had in her mouth including your beloved pacifier. When he is once dropped out her it was quite a procedure to maneuver the thing through the plastic layer through again in her little mouth.
Meanwhile, had turned out (as I had already suspected from the beginning) that the noise we had heard, actually came from a Scud missile - and from a conventional.
A few people had injected into panic atropine syringes and were then treated in the hospital. However, since the amount of poison was small and was anyway intended only as first aid, as has happened by anyone serious.
More rockets followed over the next few days (total of 40 Scuds were fired at Israel). Alternately, it sounded then, "Nahash Zefa" (= viper snake; code for operating the sirens), so video !,
or "Scharaw kawed" (= severe Chamsin; Sign that the danger is over) from the now ever live radio.
Not a single Scud contained poison gas, but we drove, as instructed by the Ministry of Defense, with the placement of the gas masks and sealing the space continues to exist. The next rocket might anyway contain poison gas!
Nachman Shai became the "tranquillizer of the nation" and provoked with his mantra-like advice "Drinking water!" much ridicule and parody.
In the first days of the war occurred in rocket alarm almost to the collapse of the power grid, because you abschaltete across the country almost simultaneously the power in unoccupied rooms. The electricity company pleading with the people, but to let the lights burning.
Another side effect of the attacks were looting of homes. Because of the instruction to leave the doors unlocked in case of alarm (for the rescuers), criminal contemporaries had an easy game and helped themselves shamelessly on the property of others, while the homeowner trembling squatted "sealed" in the room.
Not all the way, followed the instructions: not a few daredevils put not only his head out of the window ( "look missiles"), but even up to the roof to get a better view. Some have the spectacle that presented itself to them, even photographed or filmed:
I would not have brought ten horses on the roof. However, it seemed to me absolutely ridiculous and absurd to protect themselves against missiles with plastic sheets ...
The tension was always exist. Although the first few missiles were all conventional type, one was never sure whether the gas would not yet come. Against the Kurds Saddam had indeed used poison gas - because it is just refrain against Israel?
Throughout the war days no weather forecast was broadcast on the radio. They want to provide any information about the regional weather the enemy, it was said as a justification. As if the Israeli media were the only source of information to do so. Well.
The media reports on (during the attacks with joy dancing Arabs in Israel and "the territories""I'm Saddam, I chabíbí, maintenance regulations maintenance regulations Tel-Aviv" = O Saddam, oh dear, propose, suggest Tel-Aviv) enabled the Jewish public in rage or even decidedly left standing.
As in any war, so here numerous stories about various made "war miracle"The round, especially of course in religious circles.
Disturbed Shabbat rest
Friday afternoon, just before Shabbat input. (On the exact date I can not remember.) The siren that usually indicates the beginning of the day of rest, came not on that day. The siren sound could offset the people of unnecessary panic. I turned to our transistor radio and introduced the so-called "Silent Wave" one, one decorated with the approval of the relevant Rabbi special broadcast channel for religious Jews on Shabbat. As the name implies, prevailed on that frequency radio silence, only in case of emergency the necessary warnings and announcements were sent.
Shmuel put on his Sabbath caftan and put the hat on. "Shmuel, you will surely not go to the synagogue?"I said anxiously. - "Yes, I'm going. It before anything happens. " And he was out there. The gas mask he did not take with. He wears namely on Shabbat in the street does not, although there is a "Eruw". (The halachic explanation I understand not really ask a rabbi to ask ...)
There I sat with the three small "G'schrapperln". "Hopefully everything stays calm"I thought a little nervous, looking at the road. It was not. Suddenly, the sirens began to wail. Oh no!!! I quickly grabbed the children, barricaded with them in the "war room" and completed the usual gas mask and sealing procedure that somehow had something reassuring in itself, because you can indulge in the illusion that "do something". After that I said Tehillim (Psalms).
Located in a howling Rumsen was heard - but less clear than in the first night of war. The "Silent Wave" was now comes to life, there were the usual announcements.
Then in the distance could be heard the sirens of emergency vehicles, again and again. Which then remained at a distance are (as far as one can estimate that just by listening). Announcements from loudspeakers echoed through the dark night. Where is Shmuel ?!
Then sent the announcement that it was back to a conventional Scud. Exactly where they had fallen, they were not told but of course. Again I looked out the window. A hedgehog was walking around on the empty road. Where's only my husband? Well, then came home at last. Yes, he also had the explosion was heard, apparently stronger than me here. So he must have been closer.
As we heard later, was the rocket in Ramat Gan, immediately fell on the border with Bnei Brak-and had put a house in ruins. The religious family that lives there, had not been to the happiness at home. It was said that the people originally wanted to spend Shabbat at home and have all the necessary preparations have been made. Since the woman had suddenly urged to go to her parents in Bnei Brak-and the man would have joined a sigh. Afterwards he must have reminded of God's instruction to the patriarch Abraham:
Listen to everything your wife says!
Although our house is only a few hundred meters from the scene, I have only relatively weak heard the explosion here because between the affected house and our one hill. It was clear what the Iraqis wanted to meet: a military establishment not far from here, in Ramat Gan. There were other attempts to make that, which is why the city of Ramat Gan has also copped some more missiles.
In the vicinity of the explosion all the windows had gone to break, including in the home of a cousin of my mother-Piri. The old lady has suffered a slight shock, but remained otherwise intact. The damage has paid because it had been caused by a hostile act of the State.
Gallows humor and an old-new hit
As was inevitable among Jews, began soon many jokes circulating. [Examples?] On the radio appeared during the war to new songs, including numerous satirical songs about Saddam Hussein. was the most famous of which "And Saddam and metumtam"That had (unfortunately I have no recording of it or a link to it) the following refrain:
Yes Saddam thesis Mischa
Adon Saddam ja metumtam
Teze Teze mischam mischam
Se lo Iran-American thesis Mischa
Bum bum bum – Bush!
Oh Saddam go out from there
Herr Saddam, oh Depp
Get out of there, get out of there
This is not Iran-American, get out of there
In religious Jewish circles appeared cartoons in which Saddam with evil Haman was compared.
The radio was also very often the old tearjerker „Sugar Bush I love you so“ to hear, in honor of the American president at that time George Bush senior, Until that time, the same had been in this country perceived as Israel little weighed. Now the assessment changed abruptly: Bush was hailed as the protector of Israel and turned the aforementioned song to hymn of praise for him.
Everyday life in abnormal times
As were mentioned in Bnei Brak-not operated the usual sirens delivery of the receipt of the Shabbat during this period, so that people not only came to panic unnecessarily. For the same reason the operation of the steady siren for complacency was omitted after the first few alarms.
Some people, especially women, so hysterical that they would not even beeping watches, whistling children's toys and everything that sounded remotely like a siren hear. Even the sound of a moving car bus at a certain distance aroused unpleasant associations.
Other people were there brave (or foolish?). Many refrained from applying gas masks: some particularly Religious of trust in God; some because they were convinced that they always are useless in an emergency.
With advancing war - I must state here - was my threshold apparently ever higher. Finally, I woke up in the night by the sirens no longer on and put no more gas mask. Somehow you blunts and indifferent, and that is in some respects even a good thing.
With the outbreak of the war were all educational institutions - schools and kindergartens - initially closed again. Then it was decreed that the operation was to resume, only had each child bring his gas mask (and indeed should anyone who went out of the house, his mask everywhere you go). And to the children in an emergency to help with the application of gas masks - what's not going fast enough in two kindergarten teachers - had one - to be present two mothers as volunteers in kindergarten. Some times I fulfilled this task itself, because I did not then went to work. So I went with Tamar, who proudly wore her pasted with colored paper box with the gas mask; Dina, who did not go to kindergarten at the time, also came with (her hood), and of course Motti whose tent I also dragged along. All boxes of masks of the children came in a specially furnished corner, and the usual kindergarten everyday life took its course. During the day there had indeed been no attacks.
A heathen fright!
One Friday I took Tamar from the kindergarten. Dina and Motti had remained with Shmuel home. I myself had not doing my mask. Together with Tamar I went Scholars ski, visit an elderly lady and relatives of my mother in law. The weather was not great, it looked as if it would rain.
We made ourselves comfortable on the sofa and began as usual, about this and that to chat. Since flashed and crashed it suddenly so hard that almost shattered the wooden shutters. At the same moment a siren began to whine, right into the suddenly resulting dead silence. My goodness, that was a shock! I immediately fumbled Tamar gas mask and put it on her. What is with me now, what will become of Scholars ski that ever has no mask? But since it was already on the radio: "This is a lightning strike, which is not a missile attack", I repeat: "This is not rocket attack!"
After I sneaked still slightly trembling knees with my little daughter home.
The Purim miracle
And then this strange war fittingly exactly Purim was suddenly ended. I still remember people who now jokingly, almost, around dressed as Purim panel with attached gas masks and laughed. Some had painted the masks or decorated with Mickey Mouse ears and other accessories.
According to Israeli information, the losses amounted to a total of 74 civilians among the population. Of these, two people died directly, indirectly four from suffocation due to gas masks, and the rest by heart attacks.
Now we are in 2012 and again blowing in the Middle East war winds. It has also re-distributed gas masks to the population here. I have now stowed in the attic and strongly hope that they remain there in the future. Amen!
One could no better place for this creative thinking: In the midst of Jerusalem, near the town hall, there is this rather flattering for Jerusalem world map - executed in ceramics from ...
One could no better place for this creative thinking: In the midst of Jerusalem, near the town hall, found this rather flattering for Jerusalem world map - executed in ceramics from the Jerusalem artist Arman Darian, after a Original the Hanoverian theologians Heinrich Bunting from the 1581st
World Map of Arman Darian after the original by Heinrich Bunting from 1581
Curiosity on the edge: Büntings idiosyncratic view - the world as a shamrock with Jerusalem in the center - aimed not only at special accentuation of Jerusalem, but is equally a tribute to his hometown HannoverThat namely the shamrock (others certainly say a Marie flower) in coat of arms leads…
It is a ritual in which Israel travelers verschiedenster Couleur (celebrities, from President Obama to Benedict XVI, inclusive.) Enjoy: writing Prayer notes (Yiddish Kwittel.), Which then in the cracks ...
It is a ritual in which Israel travelers verschiedenster Couleur (prominent figures, Delight of Barack Obama to Benedict XVI, inclusive). Writing Prayer notes (Yiddish. Kwittel), Which subsequently in the crevices of the Jerusalem Westmauer (Hebrew HaKotel HaMa'arawi;. More problematic the German "Wailing Wall" is) to be deposited.
Those who wish can itself put a "Kvittelchen" in the cracks of the Western Wall,
suggests about the Israel-Jerusalem Baedeker visitors in front (on the other hand - this is probably said a warning to the address of Christian pilgrims - is about the "Lighting candles rather inappropriate" …;)).
In the background is, roughly speaking, the (well-documented in the Jewish tradition literature) idea of exquisite holiness of the place from which the presence of God is not left after the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple.
The Kwittel ritual seems to be so attractive that even Christian pilgrims have adapted it for themselves or their holy places. Estimated 500 meters distance from the Western Wall away namely, in the Holy Sepulcher, slips are also eagerly described, folded and inserted in the cracks - analog piety practice another religion.
Here is where worship Christians execution site and grave of Jesus of Nazareth, have therefore also kept the Gebetszettelchen catchment - and pushed in the cracks of the grave chapel; their old age or. the corresponding structural disintegration make it possible ...
The grave chapel inside the Holy Sepulcher ...
... with the relevant piece of paper
Whether here are actually a kind of inter-religious ritual import exists (or rather a long-standing analogy in religious practice)? One does not know. Baedeker friend knows each other if / does not recommend such a ritual (yet?) ...;)
What we in any case to know: Who got now like to leave a message at the Western Wall itself, does not have to wait for the next visit to Israel - Twitter Thank to prayers can also address online to the Western Wall that is landfilled then just there in printed form; More information at "Tweet your prayers„.