Koschere Melange

The blog of the Austrian Jewish Museum - ISSN 2410-6380

Category: Life and Faith

Much remains to be done ... commemorative year 2018ff

Mit einem Rückblick auf das Ge-/Bedenkjahr 2018 und einem Ausblick wünschen wir allen Leserinnen und Lesern ein fröhliches Chanukkafest Happy Chanukka – חג אורים שמח und schon jetzt unseren christlichen…

Mit einem Rückblick auf das Ge-/Bedenkjahr 2018 und einem Ausblick wünschen wir allen Leserinnen und Lesern ein fröhliches Chanukkafest
Happy Chanukka – חג אורים שמח
und schon jetzt unseren christlichen Leserinnen und Lesern
ein frohes Weihnachtsfest und allen einen guten Start ins Neue Jahr!


Status quo, viele Fakten, viele Hypothesen

Vor 80 Jahren, im November 1938, gab es im Burgenland keine jüdischen Gemeinden, keine Juden mehr. 1938 bedeutete das endgültige Aus einer jahrhundertelangen, in Europa einzigartigen Geschichte der Juden und jüdischen Geschichte in unserer Region.

In unserem Newsletter vom Februar 2018 haben wir angekündigt, insbesondere in diesem Gedenkjahr den Juden Eisenstadts ihre Namen und vor allem ihre Geschichte wiederzugeben.
Die Bilanz, die wir nun ziehen wollen, ist durchmischt.

Sicher erfreulich ist, dass es uns gelungen ist, beide jüdischen Friedhöfe Eisenstadts, den weltberühmten older Jewish cemetery und den younger Jewish cemetery, digital vollständig zu erfassen (insgesamt 1.358 Grabsteine und 1.375 Personen) und vor Ort mit Standortnummern und QR-Codes zu versehen. Jeder in Eisenstadt Begrabene kann damit ab sofort sicher gefunden werden.

Besonders der jüngere jüdische Friedhof aber stellte uns vor unerwartete Herausforderungen. Am Friedhof fehlen (physisch) etwa 150 Grabsteine, sie wurden wohl nach 1945 gestohlen, nur mehr die Sockel zeugen von ihrer ehemaligen Existenz.

Der jüngere jüdische Friedhof wurde 1875 angelegt, auf ihm befinden sich heute 287 Grabsteine.

Die Sterbebücher von Eisenstadt weisen für die Zeit November 1874 (das letzte Begräbnis am älteren Friedhof fand am 28. Oktober 1874 statt) bis 1938 allerdings 801 Einträge auf.

Nur 126 Grabsteine bzw. Personen am jüngeren Friedhof können Matrikeneinträgen in diesem Zeitraum zugeordnet werden! Die anderen Grabsteine (der 287) sind Massengräber, nach 1945 Begrabene oder Jüdinnen/Juden, die in anderen Orten verstorben sind und nach Eisenstadt überführt wurden, jedenfalls nicht im Sterbebuch Eisenstadt eingetragen sind.

Am jüngeren jüdischen Friedhof befanden sich bis 1938 also etwa 430 Grabsteine (ca. 150 heute fehlende und 280 vorhandene, die erste Reihe mit 7 Grabsteinen wurde nach 1945 angelegt).

Gehen wir davon aus, dass die fehlenden ca. 150 Grabsteine Jüdinnen und Juden gehörten, die auch im Sterbebuch Eisenstadt eingetragen sind (801 Einträge von Jüdinnen und Juden, die in Eisenstadt begraben sein könnten, und 126 Grabsteine, die wir diesen Einträgen zuordnen können), fehlen etwa 525 Grabsteine. Waren unter den nachweislich fehlenden 150 Grabsteinen auch solche von Jüdinnen und Juden, die überführt wurden usw. und nicht im Sterbebuch eingetragen sind, fehlen ‒ theoretisch ‒ mindestens 525, im Worst Case aber 675 Grabsteine.

Da aber de facto am jüngeren jüdischen Friedhof mit Sicherheit weder 525 noch 675 Grabsteine fehlen, bleibt für uns die leider große Unsicherheit, wo diese Menschen begraben wurden. In den Sterbebüchern von Eisenstadt findet sich kein Hinweis auf den Begräbnisort, Begräbnisbücher fehlen zur Gänze.

Conclusio:

Da wir weder wissen, wie viele Jüdinnen/Juden von den 801 Einträgen in den Sterbebüchern tatsächlich am jüdischen Friedhof von Eisenstadt begraben wurden, noch, wie viele Jüdinnen/Juden von den ca. 150 physisch fehlenden Grabsteinen den 801 Matrikeneinträgen zugeordnet werden können, bleiben viele Unsicherheiten.
Es ist traurig, dass wir von mindestens 525 Jüdinnen und Juden aus Eisenstadt nicht wissen, wo sie begraben sind, nicht ihre Geschichte kennen.

Es bleibt noch viel zu tun… Gedenkjahr 2018ff.



PS:

Wir können Ihnen zu Chanukka online leider keine Latkes oder Krapfen reichen, haben aber pünktlich zum Fest drei neue Matrikenindizes von Schlaining / Oberwart online gestellt:

Geburtsindex Schlaining / Oberwart 1841 – 1917

Hochzeitsindex Schlaining / Oberwart 1851 – 1918

Sterbeindex Schlaining / Oberwart 1841 – 1920


2 Kommentare zu Es bleibt noch viel zu tun… Gedenkjahr 2018ff

The tears and joys of Hanna

Concerns and confession of the Christian churches for the Centennial Year 1938 - 2018 in late October / early November 1938 announced the Jewish Community of Vienna, that in Burgenland no Jewish communities, no ...

Concerns and confession of the Christian churches for the Centennial Year 1938 - 2018

Late October / early November 1938 announced the Jewish Community of Vienna, that there is no Jewish communities, no more Jews in Burgenland.
The Burgenland Jews of Austria called terminal in March 1938, get faster and more brutal than feeling the Jews in the other states. Literally overnight they had been expelled and sold.

Almost to the day, after 80 years on Oct. 30, 2018 took place on Tuesday at 17 o'clock in the synagogue in our museum loading and commemoration of the Christian churches for the Centennial Year 1938-2018 instead.
In the smallest county prayed, diocesan Bishop Dr. Giles Zsifkovics, Superintendent Mag. Manfred Koch and Chief Rabbi Arie Folger, MBA. Kantor Rami Langer sang "El Male Rachamim".

Both Bishop Zsifkovics and Superintendent Koch formulated in their speeches clearly their concern both about the "unspeakable suffering of so many people, but also concern that our Christian churches and their members have remained as much guilty. With few exceptions, Catholic and Protestant Christians have largely been silent in Austria, in Burgenland ... the fate of the Jews, even though they suspected if you have not even known what happens to their fellow human beings ... "

Chief Rabbi follower stressed that he is happy to come to this memorial event, especially because thereby for some time held international efforts can be made at the local level expressed and realized. The small Jewish community in Austria, follower, needs partners - such as the churches or the museum - who oppose anti-Semitism and anti-Semitism.

After that bishop and superintendent presented the Lord Chief Rabbi an ecumenical pastoral letter on the occasion of the November pogroms 80 years ago:

Diözesanbischof Ägidius Zsifkovics und Superintendent Manfred Koch überreichen Oberrabbiner Arie Folger den ökumenischen Hirtenbrief

Diocesan bishop Giles Zsifkovics and superintendent Manfred Koch present Chief Rabbi Arie Folger ecumenical pastoral letter

Against a silence that cries out to heaven.

If Christians can say of themselves to be employees in the kingdom of God, that does not mean to make a choice, who else belongs and who does not.

The pastoral letter contains six pages at the end of the urgent recommendation:

This ecumenical pastoral letter may be read in all Catholic and Protestant parishes of Burgenland, in whole or in part on 10 and 11 November 2018.

Download (pdf) of the pastoral letter on the website of the Diocese of Eisenstadt.

There, see also "Zsifkovics and cooking against, lack of culture of silence '„.

Thank ORF Burgenland for report online and in TV (ORF library).


1 comment to the tears and joys of Hanna

Akiva Eger - The Birthday

First presentation: The Torawimpel for Rabbi Akiva Eger - 01. Marche Swan 522 = 29 October 1761 Rabbi Akiva Eger the Younger is one of the largest, most important and probably the most famous scholars ...

First presentation: The Torawimpel for Rabbi Akiva Eger - 01. Marche Swan 522 = 29 October 1761

Rabbi Akiva Eger the Younger is one of the largest, most important and probably the most famous scholars of Jewish history. 1791 rabbi in Märkisch-Friedland and after he had rejected an offer from Eisenstadt, from September 14, 1815 chief rabbi in Poznan died, just there on 13 Tishri 5598 = October 12, 1837 (the Jahrzeittag of Rabbi Akiva Eger is this year in a few days, on 22 September 2018).
Den Vornamen Akiba gab ihm seine Mutter im Gedenken an ihren mit 37 Jahren 1758 verstorbenen Vater Rabbi Akiba Eger der Ältere, Rabbiner von Pressburg. Den Nachnamen Eger nahm Akiba der Jüngere aus Respekt vor seinem Großvater an, unterschrieb aber nur auf offiziellen Dokumenten mit „Jakob Mose Eger“ (Jakob als Anagramm von Akiba). Sonst ein Leben lang mit „Akiba Güns aus Eisenstadt“.

Rabbi Akiba Eger in Posen

Rabbi Akiba Eger in Posen



רבינו עקיבא איגר ז“ל בהיותו בן ע“ד שנים ברחוב עיר פוזן בלוית שני דייני העיר הרב ר’ יעקב קאלווארי ור’ משה לאנדסבערג ז“ל
„Unser Rabbiner Akiba Eger, s(ein Andenken) m(öge bewahrt werden), im Alter von 74 Jahren auf den Straßen der Stadt Posen in Begleitung zweier Richter der Stadt: der Rabbiner, H(err) Jakob Kalwari und H(err) Mose Landsberg, s(ein Andenken) m(öge bewahrt werden)“ [1].


Akiba Eger wurde am 01. Marcheschwan 5522 = Donnerstag, 29. Oktober 1761 in Eisenstadt (oder Pressburg?, s.u. sowohl zu Ort als auch Datum The circumcision) als erstgeborener Sohn des Mose Güns-Schlesinger und der Gütel, Tochter von Akiba Eger dem Älteren, geboren und wir freuen uns sehr, das erste Mal mit dem Torawimpel für Akiba Eger den Beweis vorlegen zu können, dass der 01. Marcheschwan 5522 = 29. Oktober 1761 das korrekte Geburtsdatum ist!

Denn um sein genaues Geburtsdatum entspann sich in den vergangenen 180 Jahren eine rege Diskussion, die bis heute andauert. So finden wir, mit einer einzigen Ausnahme, auf praktisch allen Websites, die über Rabbi Akiba Eger schreiben (von Wikipedia [2] bis zu jüdischen Fachwebsites [3] und genealogischen Portalen [4]), das falsche Geburtsdatum, nämlich den 11. Marcheschwan 522 = 08. November 1761. Das gleiche Bild liefern übrigens die einschlägigen Printpublikationen (z.B. jüdische Lexika, Biografien [5] etc.).

Einzig, was Online-Ressourcen betrifft, die hebräischsprachige Wikipedia-Site gibt als Geburtstag korrekt den 01. Marcheschwan 5522 = 29. Oktober 1761 an. Und beruft sich dabei (in Fußnote 3) auf die hebräischsprachige Publikation von Saul Blum „גדולי ישראל. חיי הגאון רבנו רבי עקיבא איגר“ („Das Leben des überragenden Gelehrten, unseres Rabbiners, Rabbi Akiba Eger“), Warschau 1938 (Nachdruck in Israel 1967), Seite 7, Fußnote 1, publiziert anlässlich des 100. Todestages von Akiba Eger [6].

In derselben Fußnote auf der hebräischsprachigen Wikipedia-Site heißt es, dass Saul Blum den früheren Biografien widerspricht, die als Geburtsdatum den 14. Marcheschwan = 08. November 1761 angeben. Es müsste hier wohl 11. Marcheschwan = 08. November 1761 heißen (der 14. Marcheschwan wäre der 11. November)!

Saul Blum erwähnt in seiner Publikation den in Eisenstadt befindlichen Torawimpel von Akiba Eger und zitiert die Inschrift des Wimpels, allerdings ohne einen Fotobeweis zu bringen.

Dieser Beweis sei hier nachgereicht! Der Torawimpel für Akiba Eger wird hier erstmals ausführlich vorgestellt und in einigen Monaten in der Dauerausstellung unseres Museums präsentiert.

Ein Torawimpel ist ein Tuch (meist die Windel, in der der Knabe beschnitten wurde), das um die Torarolle gewickelt und um den 3. Geburtstag des Sohnes der Synagoge übergeben wird.

Entscheidend ist, dass dem Geburtsdatum auf jedem Torawimpel immer das größte Vertrauen entgegengebracht werden darf, weil der Torawimpel von der Mutter, die natürlich das Geburtsdatum jeweils am besten weiß, hergestellt wird!


Der Torawimpel ‒ die Gesamtansicht


Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Dauerleihgabe des Landesmuseums Burgenland, Inv.-Nr. 3859, ursprüngliche Nummer 10213, sehr wahrscheinlich ein Objekt aus der Sammlung Sandor Wolf.
Material: Beiges Leinengewebe, bestickt; Futterstoff: beiges Gewebe (Leinen?), in Streifen gemustert, aus 3 Teilen zusammengenäht, handgenäht.
Länge: 324cm, Höhe: 22cm


הילד עקיבא בן הר“ר משה גינז שנולד במז“ט יום ה“ ר“ח מרחשון תקכ“ב לפ“ק ד’ יזכה לגדל אותו לתורה, לחופה ולמעשים טובים

Der Knabe Akiba, Sohn unseres Meisters, des Herrn Mose Güns, der geboren wurde unter einem guten Sternzeichen am Donnerstag, dem Neumondtag des Marcheschwan 522 (= 29. Oktober 1761) nach der kleinen Zeitrechnung. Gott möge ihn heranwachsen lassen zu einem Toragelehrten, zu einem (guten) Ehemann und, dass er gute Taten vollbringe.

Oberhalb des Textes:

Scorpio
Sternzeichen des Skorpions

Unterhalb des Textes:

Fierce tiger light as an eagle swift as a deer and a lion
Fest wie der Leopard und leicht wie der Adler, rasch wie der Hirsch und stark wie der Löwe


Eine Analyse der Inschrift(en)

The individual sections are possible so photographed that each of the next section already or from the previous section can still be seen at least one letter / a sign, in order to understand the relationship better.

Image 1:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 1

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, Figure 1



Akiva child "The child Akiba" or in our case rather "The boy Akiba„,

Annotation: Boy means both "child" and "son / boy".

Picture 2:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 2

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, Picture 2


The Guns Moshe Ben H'r'rSon d (it) H (err), u (nseres master) Moses Güns„,

Annotation: H'r'r is short for Rabbi Rabbi "The Lord, the Lord ..." or Rabbi Rabbi "The Lord our master."

Picture 3:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 3

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, Figure 3


Born Bm'z't "Born u (nter a) g (skinning) S (tern characters)"

Annotation: Bm'z't is short for Good luck.

Figure 4:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 4

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, picture 4


Thursday "R'h Marcheshvan "Thursday, N (eumond) t (ag) of the Marche Swan"

Remarks: Thursday" "Day 5 = Thursday"; R'h is short for new moon "The first day of the month in the Jewish calendar" or just "new moon".
Month, preceded by a month of 29 days, have one new moon (which is of course always the first day of the new month), month, preceded by a month of 30 days, have 2 new moon days, in the first new moon of 30th day of the previous month and the second new moon of the first day of the month in the new month.
The month of Cheshvan or Marche swan following the month Tishri, which always has 30 days. Consequently, there are two new moon day Marche swan.
Now, for dates in which the 30th of the previous month or the first of the following month new moon is indicated (in Hebrew about grave inscriptions), usually A New Moon or The month in written, that: "1. New moon "or" 2. New moon ".
But this is not the case with our pennant, it is "only" new moon "New moon". However, in the pennant inscription whether 1st or 2nd new moon day by day of the week is specified, namely "Thursday" clearly answered, is. And Thursday in the first week of the Marche swan in the year 5522 was the second new moon and the first Marche swan.

Figure 5:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 5

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, Figure 5


T'k'c'b to \ K D wins "522 n (ah small) Z (eitrechnung)". G (ott) may "

Remarks: The numerical value of the letters Tkcb 522, the words "after the small era" (which means that the year 5000 is given without, so 522 instead of 5522) is usually abbreviated Hebrew with Octavo, Short for A small detail displayed "after the small count", and even sometimes speak again shortened and about with a ligature of the three Hebrew letters. We find an example about the grave inscription Wilhelm WolfWho is buried at the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt (in the pennant inscription in the ligature but only the two letters ל and ק to recognize):



The Jewish year (5) 522 1761/1762. Since the Jewish year on 01 Tishri (September / October) begins, and the following month the Marche Swan (and therefore still falls in the autumn), date of birth 01. Marche Swan 522 29 October 1761 is (or, of course, the 28th October from sunset, suThe circumcision).

The word for "God" is (traditionally) abbreviated and above in the transcription of me with a D played. I follow Saul Blum (cited above), who transcribed the same way.
In the pennant inscription we find depicted as abbreviertes Tetragrammaton the name of God, for which I have no grapheme available to represent it. The two The Y. each have the numerical value of 10, so a total of 20, and the lying (!) Vav has the value 6, so together 26. The advertised Tetragrammaton Jehovah also has the numerical value of 26 (10 + 5 + 6 + 5).

Figure 6:

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiba Eger, 01. Marcheschwan 522, Bild 6

Torawimpel Rabbi Akiva Eger 01 Marche Swan 522, Figure 6


Gad Type explore and abroad, and Lm't "Let him grow up to Torah scholars, to a (good) husband and that he may do g (ute) T (ata)."

Remarks: All six words in this section in Figure 6 are abbreviated. Meaning behind these abbreviations can I see any, except perhaps that they should allow the proposed text goes on the pennant.
Gad ' instead of grow ( "Let grow"), Letter' instead of him ("him"), Character ' instead of Torah (Literally, "the Torah") and ABROAD instead of Canopy (Literally, "to the ceremony" or "the wedding canopy").
The embroidered apostrophes I can not show here, so they are by the usual replaced.

The three wishes that the child grow into a Torah scholars and a good husband, and may perform many good deeds / works, the standard requirements on virtually all Torawimpeln are.
Also on this pennant for Akiva Eger we find to the wishes of appropriate illustrations under the text:

  • a man carrying a Torah scroll
  • a wedding canopy (Chuppa) at which occurs a wedding.

The desire to "do good deeds / works," has to do with two meanings of mitzvah, so on the one hand to accomplish mitzvah as a commandment of God good deeds for which man of God will be rewarded, and on the other mitzvahs as the totality of religious binding Dos and Don'ts to which man should hold.

Saul Blum (ibid) writes in his transcription of the pennant inscription at the end, ie after the wishes, nor a Amen "Amen". In fact, we see many Torawimpeln this "Amen" or Artist Sala "Amen Sela" immediately behind the wishes (see picture). On the pennant for Akiva Eger but is definitely not a "Amen" embroidered!

'Amen Sela', Torawimpel 1692, Dauerausstellung im Österreichischen Jüdischen Museum, Eisenstadt

Amen Sela 'Torawimpel 1692, permanent exhibition in the Austrian Jewish Museum, Eisenstadt


Figures 3 and 4 above the main text:

Pfeil nach links




Scorpio "Zodiac sign of Scorpio"


Picture 2 to 4 below the main text:

Pfeil nach links



Fierce tiger light as an eagle swift as a deer and a lion "Hard as the leopard and light as the eagle, soon as the deer and strong as a lion".

Annotation: Ethics of the Fathers 5:23 "Judah, son Temas, says spending Be strong as the leopard, light as an eagle, swift as the deer and strong as the lion of your father's will in heaven."

In Figure 2 we see as an illustration next to the wishes of a leopard, on picture 3 deer and eagles and Figure 4 a lion.

The circumcision

Akiva Eger was 522 (= 06 November 1761) in Bratislava Rabbi Wolf Benjamin Thebes, one of the leaders and head of the Bratislava municipality circumcised on the 09th Marche Swan:

Pinkas Beschneidungen Rabbi Benjamin Wolf Theben 1748-1803

Pinkas circumcisions Rabbi Benjamin Wolf Thebes 1748-1803, source: kedem-auctions



Friday As"k T. Marcheshvan would sap alone with SB-year-old boy character Akiva, Rabbi Moshe Ginz "H Friday V (orabend of) (piece) Sch (abbat) 09 Marche Swan: I alone circumcision performed in boys Akiba, the son of, s (a name) [was] i (n Israel) [praised ], Tora (learned), H (err) Moses Güns ".

Remarks:
As"k short for Saudi holy Sabbath "Eve of the holy Shabbat."

"... alone performed the circumcision ...": In many other entries, such as those immediately above and below, is to read that Rabbi Thebes performed the circumcision with another mohel.

SB short for His name Israel "His name (was) in Israel (praised)" [7]; s. Rut 4,14 .

This entry circumcision confirmed, of course, the date of birth 01. Marche Swan or that the date of birth 11. Marche Swan, as it is rumored majority (see above), can in no way agree!
The correctness sake it should be mentioned that Thursday (= 5 days) = 01 = 2. Marche swan new moon day (like every Jewish day) began on Wednesday evening, the date of birth, therefore, October 28 could be late. However, but particularly the displacement of circumcision on the 09th Marche Swan speaks more for a birth on October 29 evening (see below).

This entry circumcision raises at least two (new) questions:

  1. Why circumcision Akiva Eger at 09 and not at 08. Marche Swan took placeAs it would be if he was born on 01 Marche Swan?

    Two possible explanations:
    -) Akiva Eger was at dusk from 01 Marche Swan for 02 Marche Swan (October 29 - born on October 30), was therefore determined as circumcision date of Rabbi Thebes the 09th Marche swan. This involves, so that by nightfall still the Marche 01. Swan is regarded as date of birth, but Rabbi Thebes needs a precaution perform / a precaution on 09 Marche Swan circumcision (ie 1 day later). This is also a (still) absolutely normal procedure, since circumcision on the seventh day would be invalid. (So ​​it is practiced in this country to make the reason for the decision by Rabbi Thebes, circumcision on the 09th Marche Swan, we do not know, there remain suspicions).
    That Akiva Eger is actually born on 02 Marche Swan, I want to exclude, then because not "new moon Marche Swan" would be written on the pennant.

    -) Health problems of the boy led to a relocation of the circumcision for one day. This possibility must be mentioned at least as we in fact do not know what time Akiva Eger was born.


  2. Just for the record, it should be mentioned that the 08th Marche swan in the year 522 of the Fast HB-day was the first Thursday of the so-called BaHaB (-Fasttage), These are three fasts on Monday, Thursday and the following Monday after the first Sabbath (that was the 03 Marche Swan) after the new moon, both after Pesach- and after Sukkotfest.
    However, circumcision should be performed on BaHaB (assuming it really is the eighth day, as well as on Tisha be-Av or Yom Kippur) and therefore falls away as a reason for the postponement of circumcision on the 09th Marche swan.


  3. Akiva Eger was born in Bratislava and not in Eisenstadt, as always assumed?
    If we consider that the journey in 1761 from birth Eisenstadt to Bratislava was somewhat difficult for a family with a newborn child but who Beschneidungsort Bratislava could have been simply chosen because Akiva Eger in Bratislava - and not in Eisenstadt - born has been?
    That Bratislava and the origin of Akiba Eger's mother Gütel, daughter of the Bratislava Rabbi Akiva Eger the Elder is, seems to me to be far-fetched to justify circumcision of his son.
    The Hebrew language Wikipedia site has in footnote 4 the problem with the birth out.

A year later, we find the same Pinkas circumcision entry of the brother of Akiva Eger, Samuel Schlesinger.
In the genealogy portals is indicated as year of birth of Samuel in 1755 [8], This is not only wrong because we know through the Pinkas the circumcision date and year of birth, but also because Akiva Eger known to be the first-born son was (the very reason received the name of his now-deceased grandfather "Akiba"). Samuel Güns-Schlesinger was born 1,762th

Two German-language biographies

Gemälde Akiba Eger, aus der ehemaligen Wolf-Sammlung

Painting Akiva Eger, from the former Wolf Collection


I limit myself to here two of the oldest German BiographiesWhich, however, are among the classics and probably also laid the foundation for the tradition of false birth dates ...

Saul Isaac combatants, biography of the illustrious, most blessed Mr. Akiva Eger, Oberrabbinen to Posen, author of a collection of legal opinions; along with a funeral poem on his passing, Leszno. 1838

Dr. Isaac combatants, a student Rabbi Akiva Eger, published his biography ( "Printed at the expense of the author and to have Mr. Aaron Jacob Kaempf in Lissa - Grand Duchy of Poznan -., And the author in Salzuflen 1838") only a few months after the death of Akiba Eger (12 October 1837).

Fighting based his biography on three main sources he lists in his preface:

  1. My esteemed, too early for the Talmudic Sciences deceased teacher and patron Rabbi Joel, lecturer at Lissa, from whose zuweiligen stories I got to know the past history and the individuality of our hero, whose disciple and favorite he was;

  2. the next sphere of high deceased, where I was a witness of many a self and collected many notes also from the mouth of well-informed people;

  3. written communications worthy men whose names to call their modesty forbids me ...

Image caption: Image Pious Gaon Rabbi of the entire Diaspora Rabbi Akiva Eiger zt late
"Image of the rabbi, the outstanding scholars of the Pious, the master of all those who are in the Diaspora, our teacher, our rabbi Akiva Eger, s (a souvenir) (preserving ÖGE) m"
.

Kämpfs actual biography Akiba Eger begins with the birth 5512 = 1762 and supplemented combatants in the footnote the Hebrew date: Fourteen Marcheshvan twelve octavo DCL14. Marcheschwan 512 n (ah) K (linen) Z (eitrechnung). In the text itself the civil year 1762 crossed out (because obviously misprints) and 1752 corrected. Of the 14. Marcheschwan 512 but the 02. November 1751.
Anyway conducted by whom - - Correction of the already false birth date wrong so also is.

The author focuses on "youth story of our hero" and is itself not exhaustive his biography. Many of the later discussed (and corrected) data originate but obviously in the biography Kämpfs (about page 5):

Thus we see the young scholar, according to the fashion, in an age of eighteen enter into matrimony.

He adds in a footnote Hebrew quote from the Sayings of the Fathers 5.25: Ben eighteen canopy "... eighteen years of age for marriage ...".

But Akiva Eger married - after other sources - in the summer of 1781 Happy Thanksgivin (Gliickchen) Margulies (1762-1796), the daughter of the wealthy merchant Itzig M. from Leszno (Lissa) in Wielkopolska. So therefore he was already in age 20 been! In Leszno / Lissa Akiva Eger had opened a Talmud school, but rejected any rabbinic position.
Happy Hanukkah died on 12 Adar I = 556 February 21, 1796. Later that year, - after other sources August 29, 1796 - married Eger a second time, and that his niece Breindel that, in 1836, died a year before him.

Fighting that says on page 42 of three wives, surprising even from a temporal perspective:

He left 15 children who mourn the tenderest father in him. His last wife, the third companion his life, he felt ... in death ahead ...

The Hebrew-speaking Wikipedia white of 15 childrenThat Akiva Eger left, in the cited genealogy portals [9] However, we find 21 children, but the difference could also arise because at the time of the death of Rabbi Akiva Eger some of the children no longer live. The biography on the Website Steinheim Institute specifies:

He had his first wife and four of his second thirteen more children.

2 Children are briefly mentioned here:
Akiba Eger's daughter Sara (Sarl) (1790-1832) was the second wife of the Bratislava Rabbi Chatam Sofer (1762-1839). Akiba Eger's son was only a year younger than himself.
Eger's son from his first marriage, Salomon Eger (1786-1852), succeeded his father as chief rabbi of Posen.

Overall, the biography Kämpfs makes a little scientific impression, in fact, it is an arbitrarily assembled collection of homages and unfortunately many at least questionable data.

Salomon Lewysohn, Full biography of the upper country-rabbi to Poznań, Former rabbi to Märkisch-Friedhland, Mr. Akiva Eger, glorious and immortal memory, Poznan. 1865

Rabbi Akiba Eger

Lewysohns biography is, as he suggests in the preface, basically a new edition in German, revision and amendment / completion of "Toledoth R., Aqiva 'Egär, memories of it sons to her father, ed. Moshe Bleichrode, Berlin 1862; Reproduction Warsaw in 1875; Lodz in 1930, 30 S .; Jerusalem 1975; 1990". Bleichrode so Lewysohn, is the great-grandson of Rabbi Akiva Eger.

Some lines further (page VI), he tries to take the wind out of the sails of the critics:

Current font does not quite claim to be scientific, because it appears in the simple garb of popularity ... she has the sole purpose to lead us far comprehensive picture of life, the traits and the work of a distinguished man in front of his eyes.

Lewysohn can to Fight a good word and criticized him because of his imperfect and incomplete biography Eger, but stumbles to a large extent in the same error traps - such as equal on page 2 regarding the date of birth:

The mentioned Gittel (su mother of Akiva Eger, author's note.) Gave birth to three sons, the oldest of whom was named Akiba. It this is the reverend, world famous Rabbi Akiva Eger, called teachers of the exiles'. - He was born in 1762 - according to the Jewish calendar on 11. Marcheschwan 5522 - The Light of the World.

And in the footnote 4 to he explains his source:

After specifying the Dr. Fighting on 14 Marche Swan 5512, ie a difference a decade, but probably the authenticity will be awarded to the information of the two sons of Rabbi Akiba.

Obviously, the main source is doing here for the wrong birthday statement on: The sons of Rabbi Akiva Eger have 11 Marche Swan brought into the world 522nd

On page 7 Lewysohn is the same opinion as combatants that Akiva Eger would in fact married at age 18 (see above), and cites in footnote 10 the same reason:

R. Akiva Eger was at his entry into the married state eighteen; analogous to the Sayings of the Fathers 5.24.

Lewysohn knows - as opposed to combatants - of course, only two wives Akiva Eger and commented on the children very carefully, without giving specific figures (page 46):

From his marriage to his second wife ersprossen him several sons and daughters, of whom two sons and two daughters were still unmarried at his passing. All sons reached a high level of scholarship and secular education. His daughters he married with learned and pious men who are resident in Poland, Russia and other countries. - His second wife rushed him half years ahead in the realm of the afterlife. After her death, he was no longer one into another wide Eheverhältniß. ‒


The Eger family in Eisenstadt

On older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt we find the graves of many family members of Rabbi Akiva Eger:

Father: Mose ben Samuel Güns-Schlesinger, gest. 1790

Mother: Gütel Güns-SchlesingerDaughter Akiba Eger the Elder, d. 1811

sisters:
Reikel Güns-Schlesinger, gest. 1788
Sarl Weiler, gest. 1837

Brothers: Samuel Schlesinger, gest. 1835

maternal grandmother: Jütel LeidesdorferReferred to in the grave inscription as "Rabbi", d. 1781

paternal grandfather: Samuel Margulies-Jafe-Schlesinger, gest. 1756

Paternal grandmother: Sarl Güns-Schlesinger, daughter of Moses Broda, gest. 1757

paternal great-grandfather: Israel Marx (Ascher Ansel ben Mordechai Jafe-Margulies) Schlesinger, gest. 1734

Furthermore, we find on the older Jewish cemetery numerous uncles, aunts, brother in law and sister in law and nieces and nephew of Rabbi Akiva Eger, mentioned on the above blog pages and links.

The feature article by Gur Aryeh Herzig on Hamodia

Update 09. Dezember 2018:
Ein ganz besonders schönes Chanukkageschenk wurde uns in den USA beschert: Dieser Blogartikel erschien in Hamodia-USA, der meistverkauften Anglo-Jüdischen Zeitschrift in Nordamerika. Wir danken dem Autor Gur Aryeh Herzig sehr herzlich!


I hope you actually read my article completely. As you can see, it is much more than a translation of your blog. I added some of my personal observations on details of this wimple. Also, the biography of RAE is done with a special emphasis of interest to the our orthodox and haredi readership. In addition, the description of the minhag of the wimpel is provided to our readership, most of whom never heard of this minhag.

All this is based on your invaluable and historic discovery whose importance cannot be overstated.
Jewish history owes you a big thanks.

Gur Aryeh Herzig


[1] The image on the Hebrew-speaking Wikipedia site seems to be the same to me, but there is the financial statement 1837. It has to be (before the end of October) in 1835 or 1836, when Rabbi Akiva Eger was 74 years old, as we read in the Hebrew inscription of our image. Also there is something there uncertainty as to whether this is Rabbi Moses Landsberg, it could also be Samuel Vogelsdorf. In the footnote and references to the image. [Back from footnote (1)]

[2] On both the English, German as well as Polish language Wikipedia site is given the wrong date of birth 08 November 1761st [Back from footnote (2)]

[3] On the website of Chabad.org one finds no month and date, but not quite correct Hebrew year Date: 5521 (instead of 5522). but also the wrong date of birth also show specialized sites like JewishEncyclopedia or The Yivo Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. [Back from footnote (3)]

[4] For instance: Wikitree.com, geni.com (Geburtsdatum wurde sofort nach Erscheinen dieses Artikels korrigiert!) or loebtree.com. [Back from footnote (4)]

[5] For example, in "Julius Schoeps, New Dictionary of Judaism, Gütersloh 1992"Or in"Jewish Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition, 1987, DH". A fairly detailed bibliography is available on the Website Steinheim Institute, Even more extensive bibliography in the publication of Edward David Luft, The Jews of Posen Province in the Nineteenth Century. A Selective Source Book, Research Guide, and Supplement to The Naturalized Jews of the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1834 and 1835, Washington 2015Which although not exclusively Akiva Eger concerns. [Return to text (5)]

[6] In any case, most noteworthy the publication of Edward David Luft, The Jews of Posen Province in the Nineteenth Century. A Selective Source Book, Research Guide, and Supplement to The Naturalized Jews of the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1834 and 1835, Washington 2015Where the most comprehensive and annotated bibliography, evenly also to Rabbi Akiva Eger place. If I am not mistaken, only has Rabbi Dr. Siegbert Neufeld in MGWJ (monthly magazine of History and Science of Judaism), vol. 68, 1924, p 331 01 Marche fluctuations = October 29 as a date of birth of all other biographies remain at 11. Marche fluctuations = 08 November!
Two authors have also 08 November 1761 = 11 Marche Swan as a birthday, but added that this birth is the valid for today's Gregorian calendar date, and hold it in that time what has been in use the Julian calendar of 01 Marche Swan was like that Ernst Fraenkel, "The Poznań Raw: 100th death day Rabbi Akiva Eger", in: "Jewish community paper for the synagogue communities in Prussia and North Germany, Berlin.. Prussian State Association of Jewish Communities, Vol 15, No. 10, October 1 1937, pp 1-2 and Rafal Witkowski, Rabbi Akiva Eger, NPM (Chronicle of Poznań), 2006, No. 3, pp. 44-50).
ME is this theory but based on a methodological error: Even if the Julian calendar would be used, which can be I think, discussed admirably in 1761, would any conversion between Julian and Gregorian calendars only to the civil date, so the November 08, refer. But the Hebrew date of 01 Marche Swan, stand firm, however, and can - however - both in Julian and in the Gregorian calendar are converted.
To clarify (JK = Julian calendar, GK = Gregorian calendar):
11. Marche Swan 522 = 28 October 1761 (JK), 08 November 1761 (GK)
01. Marcheschwan 522 = 18. October 1761 (JK) October 29, 1761 (GK).
[Return to text (6)]

[7] For the resolution of this shortcut, I would like to thank Prof. Yaacov Shavit of Tel Aviv University, who visited the museum in Eisenstadt few days ago. [Return to text (7)]

[8] Such as: Wikitree.com or geni.com (Geburtsdatum wurde sofort nach Erscheinen dieses Artikels korrigiert!). [Back from footnote (8)]

[9] For instance: Wikitree.com or geni.com. [Return to text (9)]


1 comment to Akiva Eger - The Birthday

Rosh Hashanah 5779

English version, see below Erev Rosh Hashanah Today. We wish all readers of our Kosher Melange a happy and healthy new year 5779th שנה טובה ומתוקה, כתיבה וחתימה ...

English version, see below

Today, Erev Rosh Hashanah. We wish all readers of our Kosher Melange a happy and healthy new year 5779th

Happy new year, good writing and signature!

Rosh Hashanah to 5776 (2015), we could leave our big project for older Jewish cemeteryTo Rosch Haschanah 5778 (2017) for the younger Jewish cemetery finish of Eisenstadt.

Commemorative Year 2018th

The Family Gellis ...

Just in time for Rosh Hashanah 5779, the birth, marriage and Sterbematriken of Eisenstadt are (currently Geburtsmatriken of data protection only until 1918) went from 1895 to 1938 online.

It is - as especially in this anniversary year - too much theory and generally about Jews, the spoken "Connection" and the Holocaust. The result is produced not only by empty words arbitrariness, but the Shoah threatens often well aware intended, thereby losing their singularity.

Indexes are not only a tremendous help for all genealogically interested and simply one of the indispensable necessities of an efficient and serious historical analysis of the history of the Jews, but the indices to write means above all - much of our work on the Jewish cemeteries - the Jews much more they reproduce their names and beyond their story.

Even when writing the Eisenstadt Matrikenindizes we were confronted with stories that often go to the substance:

On June 11, 1938 at a time when the Nazis had long since begun to evacuate the Jews from Eisenstadt and other Jewish communities of today's Burgenland, committed an unemployed shoemaker's assistant Samuel (Schmuli) Gellis 54 years suicide, he hanged himself.
His slightly older sister Therese married in 1904 Bernhard Simon. The couple had three children.
Therese Simon was transported on 06 February 1942 to Riga murdered in the Shoah. Her husband Bernhard Simon was transported on 23 October 1941 in the Lodz ghetto and also murdered.
What happened to the older sister of Samuel Gelli, Gisela, and his younger sister Pauline and whether they survived the Shoah, we unfortunately do not know.

Both parents of Samuel Gelli and his sisters, father Abraham Gellis, D. 1919, and mother Josefine Gelli born, Rosenthal, D. 1925, are also buried in the Jewish cemetery of younger Eisenstadt.

On the younger Jewish cemetery we find the graves of grandfathers and the grandmotherSamuel Gelli and his three sisters:Bernhard Gellis, D. 1887, and Franziska Gelli born, straw, gest. 1905.

And on the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt are the great-grandfather, Moses, Elijah Gellis, D. 1865, the great-grandmother, Amalia Gelli born, Schischa, D. 1868, and the Ururgroßvater, Jakob Gellis, D. 1858, and the great-grandmother, Gütel Chaja Gellis, D. 1843, buried.

The great grandfather, Jakob Gellis is described in the Hebrew grave inscription as a distinguished and Torah scholar.

Also on the older Jewish cemetery, the graves of the find great-grandfathers and the great grandmother maternal: Jakob straw, D. 1856, and Rösel straw, gest. 1866.

Five generations of family Gelli. 220 years lived, lived, and the family Gelli worked safely and satisfied in Eisenstadt.
Until the 1938th




Wishing you all

Happy New Year and good Signature

filled with good health and happiness!


At Rosh haShana 5776 (2015) we could finish our project „Localizing the Graves in Eisenstadt's Older Jewish Cemetery„, at Rosh haShana 5778 (2017) we were able to complete the project on the younger Jewish Cemetery of Eisenstadt.

The Commemorative Year 2018.

The Gellis family…

Just in time for Rosh haShana 5779 we could publish the indices for the birth-, marriage- and death records of Eisenstadt 1895 – 1938.

There is – especially in the commemorative year – often too theoretical talk about the Jews, the „Anschluss“ and the Holocaust. As a result the Shoa is threatened to lose its singularity.

Indices are not only a tremendous help to anyone interested in genealogy, but writing indices is – similar to our work on the Jewish Cemeteries – above all about giving back jews their names and their history.

Even when writing the Eisenstadt indices, we were confronted with touching stories.

On June 11, 1938, at a time when the Nazis had long begun to deport the Jews from Eisenstadt and all other Jewish Communities of today's Burgenland, the unemployed shoemaker's assistant Samuel (Schmuli) Gellis committed suicide.

His slightly older sister Therese married Bernhard Simon in 1904. The couple had three children. Both Therese and Bernhard Simon were murdered in the Shoa.

Unfortunately we don't know, what happened to the older sister of Samuel Gellis, Gisela, and his younger sister Pauline, and whether they survived the Shoa.

Both parents of Samuel Gellis and his sisters, their father Abraham Gellis, died 1919, and their mother Josefine Gellis, nee Rosenthal, died 1925, are also buried at the younger Jewish Cemetery of Eisenstadt.

There we too find the graves of the grandparents of Samuel Gellis: his grandfather Bernhard Gellis, died 1887, and his grandmother Franziska Gelli, nee straw, died 1905.

At the older Jewish Cemetery of Eisenstadt are buried the great-grandfather Moses, Elijah Gellis, died 1865, the great-grandmother Gellis Amalia, nee Shisha, died 1868, the great-great-grandfather Jakob Gellis, died 1858, and the great-great-grandmother Gütel Chaja Gellis, died 1843.

The great-great-grandfather Jakob Gellis is described in the Hebrew grave inscription as a distinguished man and Torah scholar.

Also at the older Jewish Cemetery we find the graves of the maternal great-grandfather and great-grandmother: Jakob straw, died 1856, and Rösel straw, died 1866.

Five generations of the Gellis family. For 220 years they stayed, lived and worked safely and contentedly.
Until 1938.



1 comment Rosh Hashanah to 5779

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