Jewish cemetery in Währing

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About the history of the Jewish cemetery Währing there are now extensive, also available online for the most part literature. We therefore limit ourselves in this regard only to the most important information.

The Jewish Cemetery Währing is the second oldest Jewish cemetery in Vienna. The Medical Regulation Emperor Joseph II. From 1784 had prohibited for reasons of hygiene cemeteries within the Linienwall and the dissolution of the oldest Jewish cemetery of Vienna, the guided in the Seegasse. The scale now younger cemetery in Währing was occupied from 1784 to 1879. Following the closure of the cemetery in Währing most burials found on the ancient Israelite cemetery at the first gate of the Central Cemetery, from 1917 also in the fourth gate, instead (for more information about the cemetery to "„.

The still preserved oldest grave stone at the Jewish cemetery Währing is that of Simon Salomon Sinzheim, He died on April 13, 1784 emaciation and exhaustion (!) And was the nephew of Loeb Sinzheim, one of the most important court agents and Viennese Jewish financiers of the 18th century.

The assignment of the Währinger cemetery reflects the entire social breadth of the Jewish population of Vienna in the 19th century reflected: Important, even ennobled families like Arnstein, Wertheimstein and Todesco are buried here, and at the other end of the ladder hawkers, beggars and the despised distillers and innkeepers that "brandy" as they were called in Vienna. Their places of origin include the entire map of the Habsburg monarchy as well as many German cities.

Martha Keil, of barons and Branntweinern (Original: Martha Keil, Elke Forisch, Ernst Scheiber (Hg):... Monuments - Jewish cemeteries in Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland Hg Club Lower Austria, Institute for the History of Jews in Austria, Vienna 2006, p 54-59. )

The plan of the Jewish Community of Vienna, in 1900 to reshape the Jewish cemetery Währing in a public park, should have prompted employees of the Jewish community to write off all grave inscriptions. The approximately 9,500 copies were found in the Central Archives of the Jewish People in Jerusalem.
The copies were a few years later by the archivist of the Jewish community, Dr. Pinkas Heinrich (Born October 25, 1865 in Iasi (dt .: Jassy, ​​fourth largest city in Romania), responsible to Vienna, d. 02 December 1932 in Vienna) revised. And really meticulous revised: Because Henry corrected not only the Abschreibefehler on the leaves, but also the mistakes that caused the stonemasons at the Hebrew grave inscriptions. That this procedure had to soon lead to disagreements with the leadership of the Jewish community, is obvious, were nevertheless in particular the costs incurred by the applied Heinrich corrections to the stonemasons and, if re-passed mistake, repeated corrections, sometimes too high ...
For us today, the revisions Henry invaluable because he corrected not only the transcripts for errors and took account of rows justice but also many biographical notes, especially based on the Book of the Dead, a grudge on the leaves.
each of us put on line grave stone you will also scan the transcript (if any) with the corrections / additions of Dr. Pinkas Heinrich.

Nota bene: Without the copies and the corrections and additions by Dr. Pinkas Heinrich it would be impossible today in very many graves to assign it correctly!

The inconspicuous grave stone of Dr. Pinkas Henry is located in the Central Cemetery, Gate IV, Group 14, row 9 stone 44 (incidentally, only a few meters from the tombs of from the Jewish cemetery Währing exhumed and at the Central Cemetery Wiederbestatteten, see below). Dr. Henry was unmarried, the funeral was paid by its insurance. The Hebrew inscription is very short, but she does justice to the scholars:

The perfect way to researchers,
Morenu (our teacher and master) Pinkas Heinrich.
E (r died) on 3 Kislev 693 (= 02 December 1932).
S (the soul) m (ÖGE be involved) i (m bundle) d (it life).

Jewish cemetery in Währing and Eisenstadt

Many grave stones of the Jewish cemetery Währing lead us to Eisenstadt. Families from Vienna moved to Eisenstadt, the next or next generation of these families and other families from Eisenstadt to Vienna. Sun is about Heinrich (Zvi Hirsch) Janowitz secure in Eisenstadt on 18 March 1838 was small traders in Vienna, died there on July 26, 1866 and is buried at the Jewish cemetery in Währing. His pure Hebrew grave inscription indicates the place of origin:

S (ohn the) wonderful Rabbinical, our teacher and master Jacob Janowitz by the inhabitants of the holy Jewish community Eisenstadt.

father Jacob ben Mendel Janowitz, D. 1872, is, as three of his sisters and two of his brothers, The older Jewish cemetery, mother Johanna Lea Chana Janowitz, D. 1902, and sister Catherine, married. Austerlitz, D. 1921, are buried at younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt.
buried Also on older Jewish cemetery are the Paternal grandparents, Mendel Janowitz, D. 1832, and Katharina Gütel Janowitz, D. 1841, and the Maternal grandparents, Alexander Süßkind ben Rafael Pollak Mühledorf, D. 1853 Maria Mirl Pollak, gest. 1873.

Eisenstadt Jewish cemetery Währing but also takes us from the year 1939. Because had this spring Dr. Richard Pittioni approached with as head of the "Burgenland Regional Museum" in Eisenstadt his request to the anthropological department of the Natural History Museum in Vienna, "rassenkundlicher" for the purpose researches carried out excavations at Jewish cemeteries, including in particular in the Jewish cemetery Währing. In August 1939, a request from director Hans Kummer lion was introduced by the Ministry.

See especially: Teschler-Nicola Maria and Margit Berner, The Department of Anthropology at the Natural History Museum in the Nazi era; Reports and Dkumentation of research and collection activities 1938-1945, p. 5

Left: In the bomb craters, countless inscription fragments that can be assembled very troublesome or assigned place.

Exkurs: Dr. Richard Pittioni

Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Eisenstadts, des ehemaligen jüdischen Viertels, des Landesmuseums, der Wolfsammlung und unserer privaten Synagoge

The prehistorians Richard Pittioni was formative for the prehistory of the 20th century in Austria. Countless publications speak for his scientific work, awards and honors for his professional reputation. [...] Apart from technical publications, the name Pittioni appear in texts, which deal in the relevant context with the time of National Socialism. On the one hand Pittioni find it mentioned as victims of the Nazi regime, which denied the right to teach and was deported to the province, on the other hand seems Pittionis name again and again in publications in which the anthropological excavations for the extraction of skeletons as research material on Jewish cemeteries during NS time to deal with and the use of stolen Judaica.

Pittioni tried the private temple Wolf, the "Wertheimer TempleTo have put on the historical "what has not been approved by the Central Office of Cultural Heritage, as this was considered valuable for artistic and cultural too little. [...] The reason for Pittionis efforts that the entire Jewish Ghetto Eisenstadt destroyed and should be rebuilt. On April 4, 1939, a commission of the ghetto to clarify the further procedure with the buildings took place, in addition to representatives of various agencies also Pittioni was present. The houses of the ghetto were called neglected and not suitable for habitation, remedial measures would be too expensive. Also considerations to protect the official Eisenstadt temple and set up a Jewish museum, was rejected because of the location. Only the Jewish cemetery and to Wine shop Wolf and associated buildings to the private museum Wolfs were excluded from the planned destruction.

Friedmann Ina, The prehistory Richard Pittioni (1906-1985) between 1938 and 1945, including the years of the Austro-fascism and the beginning of the Second Republic, Vienna, 2013, page 9; 46th

Intensive contacts had Pittioni, among others, the Orientalists the University of Vienna Dr. Viktor ChristianWhich was referred to collectively with other professors since 1924 as "Hakenkreuzprossor" (and by the way of teacher Prof. Kurt Schubert was the Christian as "philo-Semitic Nazi" hereinafter), and Josef Wastl, Head of the Anthropology Department of the Natural History Museum. This initiated the exhibition "The physical and emotional appearance of the Jews" 1939th Wastl had joined 1932 the NSDAP and had set up an illegal operation cell at the Natural History Museum, held a training course for party officials on the subject of race and genetics and led surveys of prisoners of war as well as in the Vienna stadium imprisoned "stateless" Polish Jews who then deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp were ... By. Wastl was also involved in the raising and inventory of skeletons of the Jewish cemetery Währing.

See Friedmann Ina, ibid, page 47; esp. footnote 365th

Between summer 1941 and spring of 1943 were carried out three phases of grave destruction and exhumations. [...]

To preserve in particular the founding fathers and deserving members of the Jewish Community in front of desecration, exhumed a group of Jews under the head of the cemetery office, Dr. Ernst Feldberg, in several stages starting in June 1941, the members of thirteen prominent families, including Nathan Arnstein, Michael Lazar Biedermann and Isak Löw Hofmann von Hofmannsthal. The bones were reburied in individual graves at the recent Jewish part of Vienna's Central Cemetery, Fourth Gate.

M. Keil, science

1941 a total of 127 persons were exhumed and reburied in two Jewish sections of Vienna's Central Cemetery, see especially Wolf-Erich Eckstein, Historical research in preparation for the restoration of graves of the 1941-42 Israelite from the Währinger cemetery exhumed and at the Central Cemetery, the fourth gate group 14a 1941-42 and 1947 Wiederbestatteten, Vienna 2015 (pdf).

Left: Hermann Todesko, wholesalers, bankers, director of the Railway Gloggnitzer born, 11.21.1791 Vienna, d. 11.23.1844, Vienna, 53 J. exhumed December 10, 1941, reburied at the Central Cemetery, Gate IV, December 16, 1941. The (unused) grave in the Jewish cemetery Währing was recently renovated.

Middle: grave Hermann Todesko at the Central Cemetery Gate IV.

On 8 January 1942, the Viennese councilors [...] approved the abandonment of all Jewish cemeteries in Vienna. Währinger cemetery was rededicated by the prudent intervention by Robert Kraus, an official of the Vienna Cultural Office, in a green area and a bird sanctuary.

M. Keil, science

Left: grave inscription Moses Aron honey (then not yet "Hönigsberg"): In the German language, but with Hebrew letters: "... tobacco and Seal Gefäll Director ...".

Middle: Franciska (Fradl) Sulzer, born Hirschfeld, from Hohenems, wife of cantor Salomon Sulzer, died in Vienna City 494 with 46 years on June 10, 1855 buried on June 11, 1855. Full text. "The unforgettable wife and mother" and "The grateful children" (after all, 16!).

What happened and what did not happen?

For many years running initiatives and projects to rehabilitate the Jewish cemetery Währing and work up. We have also reported about it again and again about here.

Between 1992 and 1998, the project was "The Jewish Cemetery Währing as a source for social history of Jews in Vienna 1784-1874 at the Institute for Jewish History in Austria„:

As a result of a research project of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture in the years 1992-1998 an extensive database was created.

It contains 8,600 entries in the name, place of origin, address, profession, dates, cause of death and grave number of those Jews, who are buried at the Währinger Jewish cemetery. In a cooperation project with the Bar Ilan University of Tel Aviv Shlomo Spitzer and his team evaluated the grave stone inscriptions.

Unfortunately, the results have been published only in part and therefore no wider audience.
In addition, except for individual publications and regularly organized volunteer days not much has happened today.

With a notable exception:
Already in 2012 indicated Traude Triebel all death books of the Jewish Community (incidentally without public contract and without subsidies!) Relating to the Jewish cemetery Währing (Vienna), see our blog article "New database with approximately 29,000 entries 1784-1879„.

A much-needed serious and comprehensive reappraisal of the Jewish cemetery Währing be further delayed.

A newly formed club is now cause for hope:

2017 Günther Havranek founded the association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing". Spokesperson of the association is Jennifer Kickert. In the Declaration of Principles states, inter alia:

The association "Save the Jewish cemetery Währing" has set itself the goal of supporting the Jewish Community of Vienna with the necessary remedial measures. For that donations are collected, set up a small museum, organized volunteer work to reduce plant growth and organizes regular tours to raise public awareness of this so important place in Vienna.

The Austrian Jewish Museum in Eisenstadt is happy to support the club, especially when in addition to the planned restructuring measures and a really serious and long overdue, thorough work-up of this famous cemetery, that of a unique document of the Viennese culture, art, economy and society in the period Biedermeier is going.

In concrete terms means that we successively the Hebrew grave inscriptions (there are thousands of them), transcribe and translate also possible, but in any case the most important data is read, digitize and especially publish online.

Project start: Shavuot 5779 / June of 2019.

Links to the project