... of the cemetery projects of the Austrian Jewish Museum in Eisenstadt

English version


The article is the German version of my in 39th International Conference on Jewish Geneaolgie , Held in Cleveland, Ohio on July 31, 2019 English lecture. It is up to the initial idea of ​​my person in full play here.

Lesen Sie auch meinen zweiten Vortrag vom 02. August 2019 „Hilfe ich kann nicht Hebräisch…„.

I thank very much for the invitation and that I have the opportunity to speak here.

First of all: you do not have to take notes or concern have to ignore anything. They get at the end of the presentation a link where the entire presentation, including all examples and all the tools to download can!


The importance of biographical information in Hebrew grave inscriptions.

Input Hypothesis

The Hebrew grave inscriptions lead, particularly within the genealogical research usually only a shadowy and rarely get the status that they should have.

When I look at the relevant Web portals, most notably of course the Jewish Genealogy Portal auf Facebook, It is noticeable that, although often translation tools are requested by Hebrew grave inscriptions that the interest is there but mostly limited to the name and date of death. So that those often dominant part of a Hebrew grave inscription, called praise (the eulogy), is attracting attention with little or no.

And that's too bad. Because that leaves the genealogist with a very high degree of probability for genealogical research enormously relevant (biographical) data from the outside. Data and information that we provide in most cases Not found in other sources.

The title of my presentation is:
What we should learn from the cemetery projects of the Austrian Jewish Museum in Eisenstadt

What but it goes with this project or these projects?

Eisenstadt the center of the so-called was "seven communities" Hebrew. "Sheva Kehillot", ie seven sacred Jewish communities formerly westungarischem, burgenländischem area today. Burgenland is the easternmost province of Austria, on the border with Hungary since 1,921th The communities were settled late 17th century, in 1938 the final out meant every Jewish settlement in Burgenland there are no more Jewish communities, only a dozen Jews. On the 14 Jewish cemeteries in Burgenland there are about 8,000 grave stones with almost exclusively Hebrew grave inscriptions. There are no maps of cemeteries in Burgenland. It is necessary to visit each grave stone on site.

in the region is Eisenstadt the only place where we find two large Jewish cemeteries today. By far the most important Jewish cemetery in the old "seven communities" is the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt. The oldest grave stone is from 1679 and the cemetery was until the summer of 1875 occupied. The applied in the fall of 1875 younger Jewish cemetery was the "successor-cemetery" of the elderly and was occupied until 1938, in a few cases there were even funerals for the 1945th

End of October 1992 the younger Jewish cemetery was desecrated in Eisenstadt, 88 grave stones, or to be more precise, the Hebrew grave inscriptions were daubed with Nazi slogans and Nazi symbols:

This desecration led me to transcribe all the inscriptions of the younger Jewish cemetery, completely and lines cater to translate and comment on the inscriptions in detail.

Published is the work-up as a book in 1995 (back when the Internet was still in the child shoes, nor created with operating system MS-DOS 6 and a challenge) and was the first in Austria (!) Book of this kind after the 1945th

For me it was all about, identify which grave stones are present at all in this young Jewish cemetery, who is buried here so (as I said, plans are missing entirely!). No one knew the names of the dead who are buried here, no one could find a particular grave.

Genealogical claims had the publication only in passing, genealogical portals, as we know it today did not then, death books had to be painstakingly photographed and read, we limited ourselves in the publication of biographical notes.

Of the older Jewish cemetery Eisenstadt has 1,085 grave stones with only Hebrew inscriptions! We find a single non-Hebrew Letters in the cemetery.

In 1922 published the long-time director of the Jewish Community of Vienna, Dr. Bernhard Wachstein, all grave inscriptions of the older Jewish cemetery. This means that we know though, who 1922 was buried in the cemetery which grave stones have then found in the cemetery, but we 2015 Not know how many graves at all and which graves are still to be found in the cemetery and especially where that grave is in the cemetery. Thousands of people from around the world annually visit the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt, but especially relatives and descendants for decades had no way of the grave or the graves of their family members to find the cemetery!

This very sad situation eventually led to a large project in 2015 "Senior Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt". It was on the one hand to a long overdue historical and cultural-historical necessity and on the other hand, above all, a religious necessity, even more so - to a religious duty. For it is, one of them after Pikuach Nefesh, the rescue from the danger to life, the most important mitzvah, Kavod Hamet, respect for the dignity of the dead, and to know the graves of the dead!

For complete documentation, both the older and the younger Jewish cemetery (which followed in 2017, especially supplemented with biographical data) can be found on the Internet, Blog of the Austrian Jewish MuseumWhere each grave stone and every grave inscription can be retrieved. For people, especially children who are looking for their relatives and ancestors there on every grave on both cemeteries a QR code that leads to the URL of the grave stone with photo, inscription, links to the relatives and site plan. I may say - a service that is unique in the world. The genealogical claim our work has grown over the years, the main issue was with the older Jewish cemetery "Where are the people come," the question changed in recent cemetery and now was "What happened to them?" Namely, with the spouses, children in-law and children who are not buried at the cemetery.

When we talk about the grave stones and Hebrew inscriptions of the two Jewish cemeteries in Eisenstadt, we are talking about grave stones whose Hebrew inscriptions often 40 lines (!) And include more (Guetel/Meir Austerlitz, Malka Austerlitz, Fradl / Loeb Schacherls):

So we are talking of grave inscriptions on which we find much more information in the Hebrew inscription next to the name and date of death, information that often have the highest genealogical relevance!

In the following, therefore, a clear plea for the high relevance of Hebrew grave inscriptions for genealogical research:

At the outset I tried undergo clear that the name and date of death very often are not the only biographical information and that of those often dominant part of a Hebrew grave inscription, called praise (the eulogy), little or no attracts attention.

As praise or eulogy we call - roughly speaking - mostly those middle part of a Hebrew grave inscription, which accounts for the line in scope most of the inscription and with biblical, biblical and rabbinic phrases and quotations describing the individual lifestyle of the deceased increasingly getting more detailed.

As a stylistic device of rhyme are often used or acrostic, so that the line beginnings - read from top to bottom - repeat of the one or more deceased, often marked by larger letters or marks over the letters (Adele Wolf, 14 January 1894):

Grabstein / gravestone Adele Wolf, 14/01/1894

Grave stone / gravestone Adele Wolf, 01.14.1894, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Here as the acrostic helps to even read the Hebrew names of the deceased properly because it has broken out in the name line.

Although the eulogy never a 1: 1 mapping will be of real life, let alone of civic life, the challenge is to "discover" the biographically relevant information from the stereotypical and quote richly formulated texts and understand.

At the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt we find next to each other, the grave stones of the brothers Bernhard Austerlitz and Heinrich Austerlitz:

Grabstein / gravestone Bernhard Austerlitz, 17/06/1918

Grave stone / gravestone Bernhard (Baruch) Austerlitz, 06.17.1918, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Bernard Baruch Austerlitz died in 1918 at the age of 82 years and had with his wife Rosa 11 detectable children (four daughters, seven sons). We found the birth entries of all children.

That we should expend effort in this case to look for children in the parish registers, we know from the Hebrew grave inscription, which reads in row 11 and 12:

His children (literally "sons") and his descendants (meaning probably the grandchildren and great grandchildren!), He pointed to the path of perfection.

The Hebrew word Boys "Banim," "sons", is commonly used for "children in general", mostly when not even the daughters are also asked specifically mentioned (as we shall see in a moment).

The next brother buried Heinrich (Benedict Moses Hayim) Austerlitz died nine years earlier, on 28 December 1909. He was older than his brother, namely 85 years, his wife Catherine, who is also buried at younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt, also died at 85 years 1,921th

Grabstein / gravestone Heinrich (Benedikt Mose Chajim) Austerlitz, 28/12/1909, jüngerer jüdischer Friedhof / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt

Grave stone / gravestone Heinrich (Benedict Moses Hayyim) Austerlitz, 28.12.1909, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



And of course we started - so to speak routinely - in the register books for children of the couple to seek, as we believed that we - would find several children even with Henry and Catherine Austerlitz - like his brother.

But precisely this search in parish registers or other sources can save genealogists if they know the line 10 in the long Hebrew grave inscription and take into account, because then that the couple had no children in 50 years of their joint marriage is clear (and remain obviously wanted because in line 9 and 10 we read):

Chaim enjoyed life with the woman he loved nearly 50 years.
He had no children; worth more than sons and daughters was the good name he had acquired it.

So we learn reading, we expressly girls "Banot", "daughters", we can rest assured that there was only even or daughters. is problematic Boys Because both "children" in general and explicitly "sons" may be meant "banim," "sons". Here is often tact with the translation necessary. If it about is "bringing many, banim 'into the covenant of Abraham" are of course the "sons" meant just as if we can find a number in front of it: "A father of seven, banim' 'of course is a father of seven" sons " and not "a father of seven children." If we find general formulations as above "He did not, banim '" is meant that he had "no children".

Places

Also in the eulogy, but also in short inscriptions without eulogy, we often find local information: birth or origin or place of death. Death, especially when the deceased or is in a different place, died from the one in which the grave stone is located. Grave stone of Monisch am Mordechai from Eibenschitz (Ivančice), Died January 27, 1737 (Eybeschutz "From Eib (s) Schitz"):

Grabstein / gravestone Monisch ben Mordechai aus Eibenschitz, 27/01/1737

Grave stone / gravestone ously ben Mordechai of Eibenschitz, 01.27.1737, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Or the grave stone of Adolf WolfThat on 07 July 1929 (in) Bath Ischl "Merchatz Ischl" = Bad Ischl died, line 15):

Grabstein / gravestone Adolf Wolf, 07/07/1929

Grave stone / gravestone Adolf Wolf, 07.07.1929, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



It would, of course, given also the ability to easily write the place name German, but with Hebrew letters, but you have the direct translation of "Bad" = Hebrew favors "merchatz". Bad Ischl is a popular-been even with Jews Austrian spa town in the center of the Salzkammergut region in the southern part of Upper Austria.

For genealogists specifying the death location is of course extremely helpful because in that location other sources (such as newspapers, etc.) may be searched for evidence. All the more so as the death of Adolf Wolf Not the death of Adolf Wolf was reported to Eisenstadt, so Not is entered in the Register of Deaths of Eisenstadt!

In other words, only with the search of the death book Eisenstadt, which is the basic work of genealogists, we would not find Adolf Wolf. On the other hand we do not know without the complete documentation of the Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt and without reading and translating the entire Hebrew inscriptions, Where Adolf Wolf is dead and buried!

The fact that the birth or origin of genealogical view of enormous importance, must not be carried out here:

Juliana (Jütl) Holzer is buried in Eisentadt the older Jewish cemetery. She died on March 14, 1845, is the first wife of the great-grandfather of Mr. Samuel Holzer, Natan Holzer. Jütl Holzer, born in Eisenstadt and jurisdiction under Kobersdorf Shaked congregation ( "From the holy Jewish community Kobe village", line 3), 25 days after the birth of their first child Anton (Todros) died in Eisenstadt:

Grabstein / gravestone Juliana (Jütl) Holzer, 14/03/1845

Grave stone / gravestone Juliana (Jütl) Holzer, 14.03.1845, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



A very precise indication of the place of origin is found in the inscription on the grave stone of Jütel CohenDied in 1765:

Grabstein / gravestone Juetl Cohen, 06/10/1765

Grave stone / gravestone Juetl Cohen, 10.06.1765, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



She comes from Tenovice (line 4) in Bohemia, Hebrew Which "Peham" (line 5)! (You have to know that "Peham" one of the Hebrew names for Bohemia). As an aside, it should be noted that particular Hebrew names of places often represent major challenges, such as also the Hebrew Canaan "Kna'an" has to do not something is a historical place in Galilee even with the territory Canaan, but simply another Hebrew name for Bohemia.

The Hebrew name (Synagogalname) versus real name

Basically: In Hebrew grave inscriptions always and only the Hebrew name (or Synagogalname) is indicated, both women and men. It will no legal name specified. In recent inscriptions we find the real name occasionally as an additive in German or Hungarian, but just never in the Hebrew inscription (examples: Antonia (dove) Hirsch04 October 1936 Jewish Cemetery Mattersburg, and Charlotte (Schwarzl) Spitzer05 June 1914 younger Jewish cemetery Eisenstadt):

So we never find in the Hebrew inscription "Charlotte" but as "black", never "Antonia," but about "dove" and never "Armin" but as "Mordechai Zvi".

On older Jewish cemetery, as has already been pointed out, we find a single real name under 1,085 grave stones.

But even the younger Jewish cemetery we find in today second, originally the first series, the so-called rabbi series in the 22 grave stones from the period 1878-1937 are, not one not Hebrew letters, and consequently no German suffix.

A very fine example of regional specificity of surnames we find at the Jewish cemetery of Trieste in the Hebrew grave inscription Adele AschkenasiDied in 1873:

Grabstein / gravestone Adele Ashkenasi, 08/11/1873

Grave stone / gravestone Adele Ashkenazi, 08/11/1873, Jewish cemetery / Jewish cemetery in Trieste



In the Hebrew inscription her name is Adele Ashkenazi (line 2). "Ashkenaz" Ashkenaz Hebrew is "Germany, German".

Sterbebuch / death book Triest, Adele Tedeschi

Death Register / death book Trieste, Adele Tedeschi



If we now find the entry in the death register of Trieste, we will not find anything when we seek Ashkenazi. Because Adele is called "Tedeschi" (the Italian word for "Ashkenazi / German") entered. And if Mrs. Tedeschi, Hebrew Ashkenazi, eg from Vienna or Eisenstadt, and the death message would be sent to her hometown, she would have to see "German".

Adele Aschkenasis grave stone is very small, the inscription is very short, but the inscription is one of the most charming and interessantesten inscriptions, I know, but above all, because a lot of genealogical evidence is packaged in this so short inscription:

Grabstein / gravestone Adele Ashkenasi, 08/11/1873

Grave stone / gravestone Adele Ashkenazi, 08/11/1873, Jewish cemetery / Jewish cemetery in Trieste



Because we read in the Hebrew inscription (line 3) that Adele on a epidemic "Magefa" (plague epidemic) died. The death book confirms and clarifies that she was the wife of the dealer's Moise Tedeschi and died with 25 years of cholera. So far so good.

But what we in the death register Not Is read that Adele had a son who survived the epidemic apparently. We only read in the Hebrew inscription lines 5 and 6! It says:

She died of cholera on Shabbos, "Fear not, for God has heard the voice the boy„.

But why do I say that this sentence in the inscription indicating that the son has survived the cholera?

Because this sentence was read in the inscription, a verse from that parashah, so that Torah portion, who died on Shabbat on which Adele. The parashah includes the Bible verse Genesis 18.1 to 22.24 and there we find the sentence, which is in the inscription (Genesis 21.14 to 18).

To understand the relevance of this genealogical record truly comprehensive, and I quote the paragraph in question from the parasha, where just found the sentence of the inscription:

14) Early in the morning Abraham rose up, took bread and a skin of water and gave it to Hagar, put her on the shoulder, handed her the child, and sent her away. She pulled away and wandered in the desert of Beersheba. 15) When it was the water in the hose to an end, she threw the child under a bush, 16) walked away and sat down nearby, about a bowshot away; for she said: I can not look on as the child dies. She was sitting nearby and lifted up her voice and wept. 17) God heard the boy scream; cried the angel of God from heaven to Hagar and said, What is it, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard the voice of the boy, Where it is located. 18) Arise, lift up the boy up and hold it firmly in your hand; for a great nation I will make him.

Clear there's more, the message of the cited biblical verse is clear: Adele certainly had a son and the set of the parashah in the grave inscription would make no sense if the son would not have survived the cholera.

In any case, a beautiful example of that, even a very short Hebrew grave inscription may be more to biographical notes than other genealogical sources!

Grabstein / gravestone Juliana Machlup, 15/03/1838

Grave stone / gravestone Juliana Machlup, 03.15.1838, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



A particularly fine example of how to use the Hebrew name also shows the Hebrew grave inscription of the prematurely deceased at age 27 Juliana (Jentel) MachlupDied in 1838 and buried at the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt.

In the beautiful long inscription we read:

A graceful woman ... is united with a noble heart in the beauty and loveliness. Afflicted mind, beset by the time she returned ... still a young delicate lily in her father's house back ... ill and endured with patience ye imposed sorry ... and when the time for the young pigeon (daughter of Jonah) was approaching, as she flew high up into the sky

The Hebrew word game on line 14 is fascinating: Jonah years old "Asked juggler" is literally "young pigeon", but also be translated as "daughter of Jonah" (Hebrew "juggler" is "dove"). Of course, the whole set can also be interpreted as Euphemie for dying.

By referring to "bat jona" but we definitely know that the father of Juliana "Jonah" is the name and it is Jona Klaberis still alive at the time of the early death of his daughter in 1858, so 20 years later, died, and also the older Jewish cemetery buried.

Place names as a surname are a well known phenomenon that we do not need to speak in detail. On the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt we find in 1085 grave stones 51x the name Austerlitz, 50x the name Güns, 30x the name Spitz or Spitzer, 7x the name Mikulov, furthermore the name Neufeld, winches, Mill Village, Rust, Lackenbach, Kittsee, Koblenz , Wiesbaden, Halberstadt, Vienna, Krakow, Bratislava, stomping, Brno or Schaffa.

That the place names in the early days (17th, 18th century) play course for genealogical concerns an increased role, is obvious. Particularly if the place name is used as the name in the Hebrew inscription still, however, an entirely different name found in the death books and in the following generations about the place name "mill village" in Hebrew inscription, registered in the death register as "Pollak" ,

Exciting nor the job titles are names that reflect and we can find it difficult in the death books without knowledge of Hebrew. Or maybe vice versa clearer:

Grabstein / gravestone Abraham Goldschmidt, 11/11/1735

Grave stone / gravestone Abraham Goldschmidt, 11.11.1735, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



I find in the death books a Abraham GoldschmidtDied in 1735, looking for his grave at the Jewish cemetery, I need to know that I, at least in the early days, so the 17th and 18th centuries, an Abraham Zoref (line 7) have to look because the Hebrew word jeweler "Zoref" just means "goldsmith".

The same applies if I one in the death books Moses SchneiderDied in 1791, think:

Grabstein / gravestone Mose Chajjat, 16/10/1791

Grave stone / gravestone Moses Chajjat, 16.10.1791, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



The probability is high that we have to look at the early days of the Jewish cemetery the grave stone of Moses Chajjat ​​(line 4), because the Hebrew word Chait "Chajjat" means "cutter".

Finally, it is certainly helpful to genealogists when they know that deer, the son of the scholar Loeb Rofe (line 6), the son of a doctor is because the Hebrew word doctor "Rofe" means "doctor".

Grabstein / gravestone Hirsch Rofe, 11/04/1723

Grave stone / gravestone Hirsch Rofe, 04.11.1723, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



The list goes on; the same is true for the name "Chasan" cantorWhich means "prayer leader / Kantor" or, to quote the most famous example: Moses Sofer or Moses writers because "sofer" author just "clerk" means (it is known as Chatam Sofer and was for 33 years Rabbi of Pressburg).

Among the most frequently asked questions in relevant forums heard how Hebrew names (Synagogalnamen) meet certain legal name, and vice versa, so if it can be concluded from Hebrew names reliably on certain Civil name!

We know the "usual suspects": whether the Hebrew name Moses Max, Sigmund would always always correspond Bernhard ...

The fact is that in Hebrew we name no can reliably infer bourgeois names and vice versa, if we find bourgeois name, we can from these no reliably infer Hebrew names. At least we must always assume that everything can be completely different!

Although certain regularities as Mordechai and Max or Rösl and Theresia pile, but there are plenty of examples that paint a very different picture. Of course, and that must not be ignored, regional and temporal differences are noticeable. If we want to create statistics to arrive at a respectable result, strict criteria and parameters must be set in advance: Region, period, possibly also religious climate, so if there was an Orthodox community, etc.

We find about only on the two Jewish cemeteries of Eisenstadt, so a total of approximately 1,400 grave stones for the real name

  • Max the Hebrew name Meir, Mordechai, Mose and Michael Zvi.
  • For Sigmund we find Isaiah, Samuel, Paltiel and Issachar (Only marginally should be noted, as earlier, the regional differences were noted: for the Hebrew name Issachar we find for example in Germany, in contrast to the East of Austria, usually the real name Bernhard, along with about Hermann)
  • For Adolf we find especially Aron and Abraham.
  • For Alexander we find Saul, Susskind, Salomo Judah and Sender.
  • For Heinrich we find Moses Chajim and Kalonymus Zvi.
  • For Rosa / Rosalia we find Rachel, Rebekka, Sara, Sarl, Selda and Süssl.

The list could be continued ad nauseam.

Statistical clusters of correspondences Hebrew name - real name are often rooted in the Jewish biblical tradition:

The connection of the name Yehuda and Leopold goes back to Jacob's blessing in Genesis 49.9: Here Jacob compares his son Yehuda with a lion. Therefore, we often find the equation of Judah and the Hebrew lion German Loeb / Low, which is then modernized "Aryeh", "Lion" to "Leopold".

Once again very clearly: We must never assume that their legal name is nothing more than a kind of translation of the Hebrew name, and vice versa when reading Matrikeneinträgen! There is no doubt regularities, but leave we must not forward. Rewarding it would be if there were to be more serious statistical material that today, in the age of technology, would be easier to be created than 100 years ago.

Geburtsbuch / birth book Deutschkreutz 1887

Births / birth book German Kreutz 1887



(The Hebrew name from top to bottom: Genesis, Chana, Moses, Chaim Zvi, Bella / Bila, Sanwel, Berl, Miriam, Sanwel, Josef)

Often we find also entered the Hebrew name especially in birth books. Unfortunately, is like ignored by many genealogists. It is primarily not a question that maybe they can not read these Hebrew names, but the fact that consciousness does not exist, that this Hebrew name may be for genealogical research of enormous importance!

And why this is so, I will show you on a very nice example:

In Mattersdorf (Mattersburg), one of the so-called "Sheva Kehillot" the sacred "seven communities" of today's Burgenland (formerly West Hungary) about Regina were Trebitsch Kohn and Kohn Regina Trebitsch sisters! Yes, you heard right. Both sisters are called Regina and are so registered in the marriage and death books. However, were the real name, so Regina in our case, just a formality, the two sisters were at home called by their Hebrew name, which Rivka and Rachel. Each family history work can therefore result in such a case only on the Hebrew name to a reputable result.

In practice: For the wedding book, for example, three or four times in the period in question a wedding between Ignatz Kohn and Tessa Black, both names are very common in the region in question and the time in question. The age of all couples were 22 to 32 years. What wedding is now the right, that is the one you're looking for?

The solution via the Hebrew names that we find in the best case in the Geburtsmatriken or often using the Hebrew grave inscription in which only the Hebrew name is also mentioned. We therefore, when indexing Birth, marriage and death, if appropriate books, the Hebrew name should index, one of the themes in my will second presentation on Friday his.

Age and status

The name is usually initiated by an indication of or the deceased's status: "The child", "the boy", "the girl", "the bachelor", "the young woman", "the widow", "the old man" etc. Almost exclusively in men nor a title that describes mainly the function within the community comes in addition: the dear Lord who Toragelehrte, the High, the Morenu = our teacher and master, etc.

Particular caution should be exercised in the words the guy "Ha-Bachur," "The Bachelor," "The unmarried man." As "Bachur" but can also be called a 60-year old man who was not married! "Bachur" alone is thus initially a status designation and no indication of age! is, however The important guy literally "the significant Bachelor" always a young unmarried man! In the vernacular it is called "chaschuv bachurl" and simply referred to a learned young man!

Similarly, for unmarried women: Virgin "Ha-betula", the unmarried woman, no matter what age she is! By contrast, the Hebrew word העלמה "ha-alma" really means getting a Boy (unmarried woman!

Grabstein / gravestone Salde Klaber, 13/09/1843

Grave stone / gravestone Salde Klaber, 09.13.1843, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



belongs in this particular case, the grave stone Salde KlaberDied in 1843, we read in the first line Virgin "Ha-betula", that "the unmarried woman", but in the eulogy the word העלמה "ha alma" is used with a quote on the first line, inspired by Jeremiah 4.31 Narrow Cmbcirh "Cry of fear (about the death of a young woman)." Consequently, we must Virgin "Ha-betula" naturally translate in the first line as "girls"!

Someone dies relatively young, are usually words such as Died in his prime "He died in the middle of his days," a quote from Isaiah 38.10 or Plucked bud "He was picked still in his prime," modeled on Job 8:12 is used.

Usually we find Hebrew inscriptions only very approximate ages as old man "Jaschisch" "advanced in years", an old "Matter", "everything" oder return "Seva", "old age", often in phrases such as "He reached a good old age."
exalted "Merumam" about actually means "exalted", but is used almost exclusively in men at older ages.

All this may be essential information for genealogical matters of course. When we are in a grave stone not sure if he is the right and we are looking for a young deceased for example, but the word exalted "Merumam" see the inscription, we know that the probability is at least 98% that the deceased is not the of us are looking for. Frequently all expressions are next to each other or in an inscription in front, see, eg, Samuel SchneiderDied May 05, 1928 Line 2 and 10:

Grabstein / gravestone Samuel Schneider, 05/05/1928

Grave stone / gravestone Samuel Schneider, 05.05.1928, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



(2) a old man and old man
(10) He died in good standing with 82 years

Not infrequently ages come into the Hebrew grave inscriptions of the two Jewish cemeteries in Eisenstadt but most of which are rooted in Jewish tradition, such as in the inscription of Samuel (Nataniel) SchönbergerDied 04 May 1911 Line 10 and 11:

Grabstein / gravestone Samuel (Nataniel) Schönberger, 1911/05/04

Grave stone / gravestone Samuel (Nataniel) Schoenberger, 05.04.1911, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



He died at an advanced age, when he came to forces

what was his age?

We read in Psalm 90,10 "The time of our life span is seventy years if it comes up eighty." ... if the working eighty years ... and Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Avot V, 25 "... 80 years old to old age ..." ... eighty Heroes ..., So when we read in an inscription: "He or she died after he / she was come to forces," we can assume that die or one who died about 80 years ago.
Samuel (Nataniel) Schönberger actually died, according Sterbematriken 79 years.

The date of birth in Hebrew grave inscriptions is not common, which is explained by the bible verse Ecclesiastes 7.1:

Better a good name as a perfume - and the day of death than the day of birth.

About the "good name" in inscriptions and in the grave stone symbolism there is to say a lot of exciting, but I'm keeping my Presentation on Friday on.

blessings

"As the Amen in prayer" follows after the name of a deceased / a deceased's blessing He \ she rest in peace "On him / her be peace" Rest in peace "His rest may be the Garden of Eden" or Late "His / her memory should be preserved," in particular scholars L "The memory of the righteous might be preserved", etc.

Grabstein / gravestone Hendl Hess, 1907

Grave stone / gravestone chicken Hess, 1907, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Not quite so regularly and reliably of blessing is with living relatives: , Frost "His light may shine." In this case, grave of Hendl HessDied in 1907 (line 5). The girl died at the age of 9, his father lived, as expected, yet the way and was 74 years old. was that the father of an advanced age, we recognize in the inscription but - we have just talked about - the word exalted "Merumam" (line 4), "raised", that is used only in elderly men.

The blessing, which is usually abbreviated, so there gerademal of two or three letters, but can tip the scales at genealogical research whether the search in the right direction running or not. An almost dramatic example:

Grabstein / gravestone Franziska (Sprinze) Sabl-Reitlinger, 14/04/1879

Grave stone / gravestone Franziska (Sprinze) Sable-Reitlinger, 04.14.1879, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



1995 I published the book about the younger Jewish cemetery, I unfortunately overlooked in the inscription of Franziska Reitlinger the blessing rest in peace "On it is the peace" be in line 12. Line 10-12:

It gathered with her on the day of her burial, the sons of her first husband, the chairman and head of the municipality, Mr. Abraham Loeb Reitlinger on him be peace.

So we published Abraham Loeb Reitlinger, died in 1907 when her husband and Franziska Franziska than Sprinze Haya Reitlinger.

For 22 years this fatal error was written off in genealogical books and online genealogical databases. No one has bothered to take a look at the Hebrew grave inscription, because then the error would obviously immediately noticed.

  • Through the blessing "upon him be peace"Is unmistakably clear that said first husband Abraham Loeb Reitlinger at the death of Franziska (Sprinze Haya), 1879, no longer alive is, accordingly, not to have died in 1907! In fact, he died on 14 September 1826 in Vienna and the Reitlinger, who died in Paris in 1907, his son Leopold (Abraham Loeb) Reitlinger. The similarity of names of father and son was obviously a Mitgrund that the error undetected remained so long.
  • (By properly considering the blessing desire in connection with line 11 'the sons of her first husband") Of the inscription is clear that Sprinze Chaya must have in any case got married a second time (because otherwise"first husband"Makes no sense). This second husband, Mr. Markus Mordechai Sabel WiesbadenSo we now know, died in 1830. Since his first wife died in February 1827, he may have married the end of 1827 until at least Franziska. Markus Sabel died after about two years of marriage and was at the time of the death of Franziska already 49 years dead!

And suddenly, after 22 years, its entry fit in death book:

Sterbebuch Franziska Sabl, 16/04/1879

Death Register Franziska Sabl, 04/16/1879



Franziska (Sprinze Haya) is a registered Franziska Sabel, and not as Franziska Reitlinger, we were looking 22 years.

We learn from this story: Make sure Always meticulously to the blessings!

Finally, we come to

date of death

The date of death is given in Hebrew inscriptions exclusively on the Jewish calendar. The date is given never in numbers, but always with Hebrew letters that have a certain value. As recognized by that date even for non-Hebrew lawyers, and can be converted easily, my topic is second presentation on Friday.

The grave stone of Samuel BreierDied on December 13, 1904, buried at the younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt:

Grabstein / gravestone Samuel Breier, 13/12/1904

Grave stone / gravestone Samuel Breier, 13.12.1904, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Here you can see beautiful (line 6) that the date of death appears with Hebrew letters, never with numbers!

If the date of death in the Hebrew inscription does not coincide with the date of death in the death book or other sources, is the crucial question in practice always what date we trust more, that in the inscription or the death book?

Grabstein / gravestone Mose Elias Gelles, 04/05/1865

Grave stone / gravestone Moses Elias Gelles, 04.05.1865, older Jewish cemetery / older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



The businessman Moses Elias Gelles died, according to Hebrew grave inscription, which even today is clear to read (line 4) buried on 08 Iyar 625, converted Thursday, 04 May 1865 and is the older Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt. In the Hebrew inscription and the weekday (Day 5 = Thursday) is specified.

Sterbebuch / death book Mose Gelles, 04/05/1865

Death Register / death book of Moses Gelles, 05/04/1865



In the Sterbematriken but the date of death 04 June 1865 (that date difference of 1 month!) Is found. The death record was obvious grudge and wearing "serial number" 11a.

To make matters primavista difficult is that there is in the Sterbematriken death date in Hebrew, and as follows:

Beha'aloscha Sunday "1st day (Sunday) of (Week) parashah / the Toraabschnitts, if you put the lamps on the lamp '" (Numbers 8,1), and this is the year 625/1865 Sunday, the 10th of Sivan = 04 June! So both the date and weekday completely different from the Hebrew inscription.

This means that the Hebrew date clearly attracts the civil death date of death entry in the death register and were not properly credited back, but ultimately provides the wrong date. As expected, the date of the Hebrew grave inscription is not taken because the Matrikeneintrag took place in June 1865 of the grave stone with the inscription grave but was very likely set at one year, ie on 04 May 1866 until 1 Jahrzeittag.

It may therefore virtually certain to be assumed that the Matrikenführer May mistook June and earned death date wrong (yet especially since there is no entry in May).

An interesting example where neither the (civil) entry in the death register nor the Hebrew entry in the death register, but the Hebrew date in the grave inscription of the most reliable supplier Date!

Especially with corrupt and nachgetragenen Matrikeneinträgen it is an enormous advantage to have the Hebrew grave inscription available or to consider this just accordingly.

In my experience, the accuracy of the death date in the Hebrew inscriptions especially more than rely on entries in death books, when the date of death (or burial date) written with a lot of effort and meticulousness:

Grabstein / gravestone Rosa Schlesinger, 15/09/1875

Grave stone / gravestone Pink Schlesinger, 15/09/1875, Jewish cemetery / Jewish cemetery in Mattersburg



Rosa Schlesinger died in 1875 and buried at the Jewish cemetery Mattersdorf / Mattersburg, their grave stone no longer exists. Her mother is Sarah, daughter of Rabbi Akiba Eger!

Drittvorletzte and penultimate line:

and was brought to rest on Friday after, Erev Shabbat Kodesh, parasha, Ki Tavo '(Deuteronomy 26.1 to 29.8) "If you are entering into the land ...") 635 after the small era = Friday, September 17, 1875

It is obvious to one - in this case - to formulate funeral date so it is not enough simply to have a look at the Jewish calendar, because a lot more effort, more accuracy, more tradition and more religious knowledge is required.

Dear Madam or Sir,

As much as I regret the non-performance or to-little-compliance with the Hebrew grave inscriptions and other Hebrew sources (such as year boards, Hebrew entries in the parish registers, etc.) in genealogical research !, it is the beautiful language often with so much wisdom and Love written inscriptions that most fascinates me still. And I would hope that I have succeeded, to inspire you for this beauty of the language of Hebrew inscriptions a little, and off the genealogical interest.

cause of death

The frequently noted in Sterbematriken death plays no or only a very minor role (exception: personal interest) for genealogists. Likewise, we rarely find in Hebrew grave inscriptions an indication of the cause of death (except martyrs, plague victims, etc.).

Every now and then but found a particularly beautiful word:

Grabstein / gravestone Elias Abraham Gabriel, 15/02/1878

Grave stone / gravestone Elias Abraham Gabriel, 02.15.1878, younger Jewish cemetery / younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt



Elias (Abraham) Gabriel died on 12 Adar I 638 (15 February 1878)

with a divine kiss at the age of 71 years ...

we read on line. 2

Cited here is the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Moed Qatan 28a and Baba Batra 17a, where it says "... and Miriam also died (ie Moses) with a (divine) Kiss (ie without agony and pain) ..." See also treatise Berachot 8a "... the lightest (cause of death) is the kiss (death) ...".

Elias (Abraham) Gabriel died an easy death and is buried in the so-called rabbi series at younger Jewish cemetery in Eisenstadt.


Thank you!


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