Koschere Melange

The blog of the Austrian Jewish Museum - ISSN 2410-6380

Schlagwort: bildende kunst

Pesach 5774

Wohl kaum ein Bildmotiv in einer Pesach-Haggada mag regional mehr bzw. origineller verortet sein als Störche in einer Haggada aus dem böhmisch-mährisch-ungarischen Raum, der übrigens die Heimat eines Großteils der…

Hardly a motif in a Pesach Haggadah may be regionally or more original locates as storks in a Haggadah from the Bohemian-Moravian-Hungarian space which, incidentally, was the home of most of the writers and illuminators of the 18th century. Perhaps the Haggadah comes even from the area around Lake Neusiedl.

Abraham und die 3 Engel in Mamre, Pesach Haggada 1737


Storks are from our region, Burgenland, not indispensable, every child knows this country that annually recurring beautiful spectacle: In spring, the storks return from the South back into the Burgenland to build here on the chimneys their nests to have a baby, on the tease summer months and strike out south again in the fall.

Approximately 30-40 days after the eggs are laid, they hatch. This year, incidentally, was the first stork few days ago, on 26th of March, To Burgenland, the selection of the image for this year's our Pesachwünsche done so not by chance ;-)

Of course, the beautiful birds seem to have become not only recently become a kind symbol of our region. Already in 1737, the year of our Pesach Haggadah, we find them - almost in Burgenland local color - on the chimney of Abraham's house. The biblical motif of Illustration underlying we already know: Abraham and the three angels in Mamre, An illustration of an anthem in the Pesach Haggadah, which is read at the home Pesach- / Seder on the second Pesachabend afterwards.

An interesting detail we find on the front page of the Pesach Haggadah:

Titelseite Pesach Haggada 1737


Between Moses and Aaron, we read:

Pesach Haggadah, with beautiful illustrations, all handwritten on parchment with the capitals of Amsterdam, in the year 497 after the small era (= 1737)

Late 16th century, many were Marranen, also unter Zwang zum Christentum bekehrte iberische Juden, die sich Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts wieder offen zum Judentum bekannten, in Amsterdam nieder. Ihr großes Interesse an hebräischer Literatur führte dazu, dass 1626 Menasse ben Israel in Amsterdam eine hebräische Druckerei gründete, in der nicht nur sehr viele hebräische und lateinische Bücher gedruckt wurden, sondern in der auch neue Schrifttypen geschnitten wurden. Die hervorragende Qualität dieser „Amsterdamer Buchstaben“ ließ später viele ausländische Schreiber – nicht ganz wahrheitsgemäß – auf ihren Titelseiten den Vermerk anbringen “Mit den Buchstaben von Amsterdam”.

Nun steht aber hier nicht – wie meistens – “Amsterdam” mit hebräischen Buchstaben (Amsterdam), sondern “Amstelredam” (! Amstlrdm), So the name of the fishing village that had arisen at one erected in the 13th century dam with sluice in the river Amstel.
Wissen wir das nicht, würden wir vielleicht “Amstlerdam” lesen…


Erev Pesach is always on 14 Nisan, which this year is Monday, April 14th.

We wish you a happy and kosher Passover 5774!

Happy and Kosher Passover!

We also wish our Christian readers a Happy Easter!


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Rauchen, Schabbes und eine Tabakdose

Rauchen und/im Judentum – das scheint ein reichlich abwegiges Thema zu sein. Mag sein, kulturgeschichtlich und halachisch (religionsgesetzlich) interessant ist die Sache allemal. Nicht von ungefähr hat es etwa die…

Smoking and / Judaism - that seems to be a plentiful devious topic. the thing is all may be, cultural history and halakhic (religious law) interesting. It is no coincidence, it is about the question of the legal treatment of the religion smoking zu einem eigenen Wikipedia-Eintrag gebracht, und die Jewish Encyclopedia widmet dem Thema “Tobacco” in seinen verschiedensten Facetten annähernd 4 Spalten.

you can about, learn from the latter that it is - allegedly - a Jewish companion of Christopher Columbus, Luis Land (Torres)I was the first of tobacco use imported into Europe (see JE, XII, page 165). - a legendary Jewish forefather of all European smokers quasi ...
In addition, the incidence of smoking among European Jews, an obvious manner, accompanied by all sorts of religious law discussions - for example, whether the inhalation of smoke should be preceded by a blessing, or in matters of permissibility of smoking at festivals and fast days (see. JE, XII, p 165f.). -

A particularly fine example for the smooth operation of tobacco use in specifically Jewish setting is found in Joseph Roth. An East European Jewish town descriptive, the conversation turns to the local houses of worship and their visitors: Those present said Roth describes the scene,

... smoke cigarettes and bad pipe tobacco in the house of prayer. They act like in a casino.

The tobacco use so sometimes seems not even to have made on the doors of the houses of worship Stop! Roth provides the scene also with a remarkable, namely theological interpretation by this seemingly little awesome demeanor tends to be seen as an indication of a unique religious intimacy: Those smoking and completely uninhibited worshipers were just

... not rare to God guests, but at home. They equip him not a state visit, but gather three times a day to its rich, poor, holy tables. ... There is no nation that had this relationship with God. It's an ancient people, and know him a long time!

Joseph Roth, Jews wandering, Munich 2006, p 26

But (hotly debated even in the present) back to the question of permissibility. Prohibited smoking is in any case on Shabbat - no lighting fires (and only very limited use of inflamed the day before the fire), corresponding to no smoking! (See. Jew. Lex., I, Sp. 445f., Etc.)
For this is true for example, that visitors to Jerusalem's Western Wall -
be specially noted that here on Shabbat, in addition to taking pictures and mobile phone use, including smoking - whether Jewish or not “streng verboten” be.

In this context of smoking and non-smoking was not matching the following museum piece - a tobacco tin from the mid-19th century, which can be seen in the permanent exhibition of our house.

Tabakdose aus Silber, Ungarn 1839

Snuffbox of silver, Hungary in 1839, Jew. Max Berger Museum Vienna, Coll., IN 504

The inscription indicates apparently a use on Shabbat - The holy Sabbath, For the holy Shabbat.
A tobacco tin, calculated for the smoke-free Shabbat? The interpretation suggests that the can more precisely the storage of SnuffTobacco was used - the fact was commonly called also on Shabbat ends (see JE, XII, p.166). and was good for accordingly just as shabbat-compatible Smoke Replacement

Zum Thema “Schnupftabak und Schabbat” siehe auch das berühmte Bild “The / A pinch of snuff” (oder hereIn an alternative version, even larger) by Marc Chagall! A brief description of the image Kunsthalle Dusseldorf see here and a more detailed description of why the image of the rabbi (?) is on Shabbat, we find u.a. im Sammelband “The ostracized masterpiece“:

... The man has interrupted his reading for a moment to sneeze a pinch of snuff. It could be an indication of the time of the event: Smokers use on Shabbat, on which no work can be done, like snuff, because the lighting of fires is prohibited. Yet another sign speaks for the holiday: On the table is not a writer. Even the writing is - not permitted on Shabbat ... - as opposed to reading

Conclusion of our own: The literature based on snuff / Shabbat etc. (still fellow / fellow at the Jewish Museum Franken the "snuff" a few years ago even its own exhibition have dedicated) reasonably narrow - relevant guidance in this regard by skilled blog readers / -lesern are received in accordance grateful!

For helpful comments on the subject, we thank Dr. Felicitas Heimann-Jelinek!


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Bild der Woche – ‘Judensau’

Am Dienstag wurde im Stadtmuseum in Wiener Neustadt die Ausstellung “Schicksalswege. Die jüdische Gemeinde in Wiener Neustadt” eröffnet. Zu den wertvollsten und zweifellos beachtenswertesten Objekten der Ausstellung gehört das Kalksandsteinrelief…

Am Dienstag wurde im Stadtmuseum in Wiener Neustadt die Ausstellung “Fate way. The Jewish community in Wiener Neustadt” eröffnet.
Among the most valuable and certainly beachtenswertesten objects of the exhibition, the calcareous sandstone relief of the so-called Jewish pig from the 15th century belongs (?), Which was located on the house's main square 16th

'Judensau', Stadtmuseum Wiener Neustadt

sucking on the teats of a large sow four Jews, a fifth is on the ground and a sixth clings to the tail.

In the Middle Ages the pig was considered a symbol of debauchery and gluttony, so she represented sinners who lived extravagantly in every way. Already the Fulda abbot and archbishop of Mainz Maurus (780 to 856) establishes the connection between the sow and the Jews. Thus, the Jews were to be dismissed as impure and sinners.

Die ältesten Belege von “Judensau”-Darstellungen in Deutschland stammen aus dem Beginn des 13. Jahrhunderts. Das Thema “Judensau” wurde auch mit dem Thema “Ecclesia und Synagoga” (“Kirche und Synagoge” – das Motiv entsteht im 9. Jahrhundert) verbunden. So reitet auf dem Chorgestühl des Erfurter Doms die Synagoge, dargestellt durch einen Mann mit Judenhut, auf einer Sau in das Turnier gegen die auf einem edlen Pferd reitende Kirche.

The sow also played in the procedure of Judeneides a major role. After this Schwabenspiegel (13th century) of the swearing Jew had to stand barefoot on a bloody pig skin. This skin had to come from a sow that had boy in the past 14 days, and she had to be cut open along the back. The teat on which the Jew had to be had to be visible.

Mehr Informationen zum Motiv der “Judensau” und Literatur: de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judensau.

tipThe exhibition at the City Museum Wiener Neustadt can be visited until May 29, 2011!



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Bild der Woche – Birnbaums ‘Moses’

This week, on November 13, the birthday of the painter and author Uriel Birnbaum anniversary - and for the 115th time. In a complex, not less than 50 individual works ...

This week, on November 13, the birthday of the painter and author anniversary Uriel Birnbaum - and for the 115th time.

In einem aufwendigen, nicht weniger als 50 Einzelwerke umfassenden Bildzyklus hat Birnbaum in den 1920er Jahren das Leben des biblischen Mose dargestellt. Sämtliche Bilder dieses Zyklus “Moses” sind als Kopien (die Originale gelten als verschollen) dauerhaft im “Auditorium” unseres Museums ausgestellt – und außerdem online available…

Bild Uriel Birnbaum: Die Übergabe der Bundestafeln

Die Übergabe der Bundestafeln (aus Birnbaums Bildzyklus “Moses”) – nach 2. Mose 31,18:

Bride and gave to Moses on Mount Sinai to talk with the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone writings finger of God:

After the Lord to Moses had said everything on Mount Sinai, he gave him the two tablets of the commandments, tablets of stone, with the finger of God had written.


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